Phosphine

  • Hydrogen phosphide
  • Phosphorous hydride
  • Phosphorated hydrogen
Formula
PH3
Structure
Description
A colorless gas with a disagreeable odor of fish or garlic.
Uses
Insecticide used for fumigation of animal feed, leaf stored tobacco, box cars, & used for rodent control.

Registry Numbers and Inventories.
CAS
7803-51-2
EC (EINECS/ELINCS)
232-260-8
EC Index Number
015-181-00-1
RTECS
SY7525000
RTECS class
Agricultural Chemical and Pesticide; Mutagen; Human Data
UN (DOT)
2199
Merck
12,7494
Beilstein/Gmelin
287 (G)
RCRA
P096
EPA OPP
66500
Swiss Giftliste 1
G-2048
Canada DSL/NDSL
DSL
US TSCA
Listed
Austrailia AICS
Listed
New Zealand
Listed
Japan ENCS (MITI)
Listed

Properties.
Formula
H3P
Formula mass
34
Melting point, °C
-132.8
Boiling point, °C
-87.4
Vapor pressure, mmHg
15200 (7 C)
Vapor density (air=1)
1.17
Odor Threshold Odor threshold 0.03 ppm
Critical pressure
65
Density
0.746 g/cm3 (20 C)
Solubility in water
Slightly soluble
Viscosity
0.00011 P (0 C)
Dipole moment
1.35 D
Dielectric constant
2.91 (20 C)
Thermal expansion
0.00379/K (0C)
Heat of fusion
1.1 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization
15.3 kJ/mol

Hazards and Protection.
Storage
Keep in a cool, dry, dark location in a tightly sealed container or cylinder. Keep away from incompatible materials, ignition sources and untrained individuals. Secure and label area. Protect containers/cylinders from physical damage.
Handling
All chemicals should be considered hazardous. Avoid direct physical contact. Use appropriate, approved safety equipment. Untrained individuals should not handle this chemical or its container. Handling should occur in a chemical fume hood.
Protection
Wear appropriate protective gloves, clothing and goggles -- as recommended by the manufacturer. Always wear thermal protective clothing when handling refrigerated/cryogenic liquids.
Respirators
Wear positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA).
Small spills/leaks
Keep sparks, flames, and other sources of ignition away. Keep material out of water sources and sewers. Attempt to stop leak if without undue personnel hazard. Use water spray to knock-down vapors.
Stability
Explosive with pure oxygen. Container may explode in heat of fire. Vapor explosion hazard indoors, outdoors, or in sewers. can be detonated by powerful initiation.
Incompatibilities
Reacts violently with boron trichloride, dichlorine oxide, halogens (bromine, chlorine, iodine), metal nitrates, nitrogen oxides, nitric acid, nitrous acid, nitrogen trichloride.
Decomposition
When heated to decomposition, emits toxic fumes of phosphorus oxides.

Fire.
Autoignition, °C
38
Lower exp. limit, %
1.8
Fire fighting
Wear full protective clothing including self-contained breathing apparatus, rubber gloves, boots, and bands around legs, arms, and waist. No skin surface should be exposed. For massive fires in cargo areas, use unmanned hose holders or monitor nozzles. Move containers from fire area.If material is on fire or involved in a fire, do not extinguish unless flow can be stopped; use water in flooding quantities as fog; cool all affected containers with flooding quantities of water; apply water from as far a distance as possible; solid streams of water may be ineffective; use alcohol foam, carbon dioxide or dry chemical.
Fire potential
Extremely flammable. May be ignited by heat, sparks, and flames; flammable vapor may spread away from spill. The heat that accompanies combustion is so exothermic that fires that involve phosphine spread to surrounding materials rapidly.
Hazards
Phosphine can explode with powerful oxidizers. The gas is heavier than air and may travel along the ground to an ignition source. Container may explode in heat of fire. When heated to decomposition, it emits highly toxic fumes of phosphorus oxides. Reacts violently with: air; boron trichloride; bromine; chlorine; chlorine monoxide; nitric acid; nitric oxide; nitrous oxide; nitrogen trioxide; silver nitrate; nitrous acid; mercuric nitrate; nitrogen trichloride; oxygen; and (potassium plus ammonia). Stable up to 131F. May become unstable at high temperatures.
Combustion products
Fire will produce irritating, corrosive and/or toxic gases.
Health
4
 
Flammability
4
 
 
Reactivity
2
 

Health.
Exposure limit(s)
OSHA PEL: TWA 0.3 ppm (0.4 mg/m3) NIOSH REL: TWA 0.3 ppm (0.4 mg/m3) ST 1 ppm (1 mg/m3) NIOSH IDLH: 50 ppm
Poison_Class
1
Exposure effects
Rapid heart rate and abnormally low blood pressure may occur. Dizziness, headache, fatigue, stupor, restlessness, ataxia, seizures, and coma may be noted.
   Ingestion
Nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and diarrhea may occur.
   Inhalation
Mucous membrane irritation, shortness of breath, cough, sputum production chest tightness, dyspnea, ards, and delayed onset of pulmonary edema may occur.
   Skin
Sweating and cyanosis have been seen.
   Eyes
Irritation of the mucous membranes may be noted.

First aid
 
   Ingestion
The possible benefit of early removal of some ingested material by cautious gastric lavage must be weighed against potential complications of bleeding or perforation. Activated charcoal activated charcoal binds most toxic agents and can decrease their systemic absorption if administered soon after ingestion. Activated charcoal: administer charcoal as a slurry (240 ml water/30 g charcoal). Usual dose: 25 to 100 g in adults/adolescents.
   Inhalation
Move patient to fresh air. Monitor for respiratory distress. If cough or difficulty breathing develops, evaluate for respiratory tract irritation, bronchitis, or pneumonitis. Administer oxygen and assist ventilation as required. Treat bronchospasm with beta2 agonist and corticosteroid aerosols.
   Skin
Treatment should include recommendations listed in the oral exposure section when appropriate.
   Eyes
Immediately flush with running water for at least 20 minutes.

Transport.
UN number
2199
Response guide
Hazard class
2.3
PRTC
T
USCG CHRIS Code
PHP
 
Std. Transport #
4920160