Pilocarpine

  • Syncarpine
  • Ocusert Pilo
  • 2(3H)-Furanone, 3-ethyldihydro-4-[(1-methyl-1H-imidazol-5-yl)methyl]-, (3S,4R)-
Formula
C11H16N2O2
Structure
Description
Viscous, oily liquid/crystals with no odor.
Uses
Medication (vet).

Registry Numbers and Inventories.
CAS
92-13-7
EC (EINECS/ELINCS)
202-128-4
EC Index Number
614-016-00-6
EC Class
Very toxic
RTECS
TK1400000
RTECS class
Drug; Human Data; Natural Product
Merck
12,7578
Beilstein/Gmelin
86187
Beilstein Reference
4-27-00-07463
Canada DSL/NDSL
NDSL
US TSCA
Listed
Austrailia AICS
Listed
New Zealand
Listed

Properties.
Formula
C11H16N2O2
Formula mass
208.26
Melting point, °C
34
Boiling point, °C
260 (5 torr)
Solubility in water
Soluble
pKa/pKb
6.75 (pKb)

Hazards and Protection.
Storage
Keep containers tightly closed.
Handling
All chemicals should be considered hazardous. Avoid direct physical contact. Use appropriate, approved safety equipment. Untrained individuals should not handle this chemical or its container. Handling should occur in a chemical fume hood.
Protection
Use safety goggles, rubber gloves and appropriate laboratory apparel.
Respirators
NIOSH approved respirator.
Small spills/leaks
Using appropriate protective equipment, sweep up. Avoid dust production. Place material in appropriate container for later disposal.
Stability
Stable at normal temperatures and pressures.
Incompatibilities
Silver nitrate, mercury bichloride, iodides, gold salts, tannin, calomel, alkalies, potassium permanganate.
Decomposition
Oxides of nitrogen.

Fire.
Fire fighting
Extinguish using media most appropriate for surrounding fire. Evacuate area. Wear SCBA and protecttive clothing.
Fire potential
Material is assumed to be combustible.

Health.
Exposure effects
   Ingestion
Nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea, or belching may be noted.
   Inhalation
Dyspnea, bronchospasm, tachypnea, increased bronchial secretions, and pulmonary edema may occur, especially in asthmatic patients.
   Skin
Causes irritation. Posioning can occur by cutaneous absorption.
   Eyes
Causes irritation.

First aid
 
   Ingestion
Induction of vomiting is usually not necessary due to spontaneous vomiting. Activated charcoal: administer charcoal as a slurry (240 ml water/30 g charcoal). Usual dose: 25 to 100 g in adults/adolescents. Bethanechol - for substantial ingestions of bethanechol, consider gastric lavage preceded by endotracheal intubation. Other agents - carbachol, acetylcholine, and pilocarpine are liquids, rapidly absorbed and probably not removed significantly by gastric emptying procedures. Atropine sulfate is the drug of choice. For significant muscarinic symptoms administer: adults - 2 to 4 mg iv, repeated every 3 to 60 minutes as needed to control symptoms, then prn for 24 to 48 hours. Child - 0.04 To 0.08 Mg/kg iv (up to 4 mg) repeated every 5 to 60 minutes as necessary. Epinephrine - may assist in overcoming severe cardiovascular or bronchoconstrictor responses (dose: 0.1 To 1.0 Mg sc).
   Inhalation
Remove to fresh air. Provide CPR, oxygen if needed. Seek medical assistance.
   Skin
Remove contaminated clothing and wash exposed area thoroughly with soap and water. A physician should examine the area if irritation or pain persists.
   Eyes
Irrigate exposed eyes with copious amounts of tepid water for at least 15 minutes. If irritation, pain, swelling, lacrimation, or photophobia persist, the patient should be seen in a health care facility.

Transport.