Potassium nitrate

  • Saltpeter
  • Niter
Formula
KNO3
Structure
Description
Transparent, colorless or white crystals or crystalline powder, odorless, hygroscopic.
Uses
In fireworks, fluxes, pickling of meats, manufacture glass, matches, gunpowder, blasting powders, in freezing mixt, impregnating candle wicks, treating tobacco, tempering steel.

Registry Numbers and Inventories.
CAS
7757-79-1
EC (EINECS/ELINCS)
231-818-8
EC Class
oxidizing
S 17 24/25
RTECS
TT3700000
RTECS class
Drug; Mutagen; Reproductive Effector
UN (DOT)
1486
Merck
12,7815
Beilstein/Gmelin
18663 (G)
EPA OPP
76103
Swiss Giftliste 1
G-2313
Canada DSL/NDSL
DSL
US TSCA
Listed
Austrailia AICS
Listed
New Zealand
Listed
Japan ENCS (MITI)
Listed
Korea ECL
Listed

Properties.
Formula
KNO3
Formula mass
101.11
Melting point, °C
334
Vapor pressure, mmHg
3E-5 (4000 C)
Vapor density (air=1)
3.5
Odor Threshold Odor threshold Odorless
Density
2.109 g/cm3 (20 C)
Solubility in water
357 g/L
Dielectric constant
61.1 (10 C)
Heat of fusion
9.4 kJ/mol

Hazards and Protection.
Storage
Do not store near combustible materials. Store in a tightly closed container. Store in a cool, dry, well-ventilated area away from incompatible substances. Keep away from reducing agents.
Handling
Wash thoroughly after handling. Avoid prolonged or repeated contact with skin. Avoid contact with eyes. Keep container tightly closed. Avoid ingestion and inhalation. Use with adequate ventilation. Wash clothing before reuse. Keep away from clothing and other combustible materials.
Protection
Eyes: Wear appropriate protective eyeglasses or chemical safety goggles as described by OSHA's eye and face protection regulations in 29 CFR 1910.133 or European Standard EN166. Skin: Wear appropriate gloves to prevent skin exposure. Clothing: Wear appropriate protective clothing to prevent skin exposure.
Respirators
Follow the OSHA respirator regulations found in 29CFR 1910.134 or European Standard EN 149. Always use a NIOSH or European Standard EN 149 approved respirator when necessary.
Small spills/leaks
Vacuum or sweep up material and place into a suitable disposal container. Clean up spills immediately, using the appropriate protective equipment. Avoid generating dusty conditions. Remove all sources of ignition. Provide ventilation. Do not use combustible materials such as paper towels to clean up spill.
Stability
Stable under normal temperatures and pressures.
Incompatibilities
Reacts violently with organic materials, combustible materials, and reducing agents. Specific incompatibles under various conditions include aluminum, titanium, antimony, germanium, zinc, zirconium, calcium disilicide, chromium nitride, metal sulfides, boron, carbon, sulfur, phosphorus, phosphides, sodium phosphinate, sodium thiosulfate, citric acid, tin chloride, sodium acetate, and thorium carbide.
Decomposition
Nitrogen oxides, irritating and toxic fumes and gases, oxygen.

Fire.
Fire fighting
Flood with water. Cool all affected containers with flooding quantities of water. Apply water from as far a distance as possible.
Fire potential
Dangerous fire. Risk when shocked or heated.
Hazards
May explode from heat or contamination. May react explosively with hydrocarbons (fuels). May ignite combustibles.
Combustion products
May produce toxic nitrogen oxides upon decomposition.
Health
1
 
Flammability
0
 
 
Reactivity
0
 
 
Special
O

Health.
Exposure limit(s)
OEL-RUSSIA:STEL 5 mg/m3
Poison_Class
4
Exposure effects
Prolonged exposure may cause anemia and methemoglobinemia, characterized by dizziness, drowsiness, headache, breath shortness, cyanosis, rapid heart rate and chocolate-brown colored blood. May cause kidney injury. May cause methemoglobinemia, which is characterized by chocolate-brown colored blood, headache, weakness, dizziness, breath shortness, cyanosis, rapid heart rate, unconsciousness and possible death.
   Ingestion
Causes gastrointestinal irritation with nausea, vomiting and diarrhea.
   Inhalation
May cause respiratory tract irritation. May cause methemoglobinemia, cyanosis, convulsions, tachycardia, dyspnea, and death.
   Skin
Dust causes mechanical irritation. Low hazard for usual industrial handling.
   Eyes
May cause eye irritation.

First aid
 
   Ingestion
Do NOT induce vomiting. If victim is conscious and alert, give 2-4 cupfuls of milk or water. Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person. Get medical aid.
   Inhalation
Remove from exposure to fresh air immediately. If not breathing, give artificial respiration. If breathing is difficult, give oxygen. Get medical aid.
   Skin
Flush skin with plenty of soap and water for at least 15 minutes while removing contaminated clothing and shoes. Get medical aid if irritation develops or persists. Wash clothing before reuse.
   Eyes
Flush eyes with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes, occasionally lifting the upper and lower eyelids. Get medical aid.

Transport.
UN number
1486
Response guide
Hazard class
5.1
Packing Group
III
 
USCG CHRIS Code
PNR
 
HS Code
2834 21 00
 
Std. Transport #
4918741