- Propyl hydride
- Petroleum gas
Colorless gas. Unodorized propane has a slightly sweet odor. If an odorant has been added it will have a strong unpleasant odor.
Component of liquid petroleum gas for commercial and industrial usage, feedstock in thermal cracking processes used to manufacture ethylene and propylene, refrigerant in chemical refining and gas processing operations, fuel in welding and cutting operations.
Registry Numbers and Inventories.
EC Index Number
Agricultural Chemical and Pesticide
Swiss Giftliste 1
Japan ENCS (MITI)
Melting point, °C
Boiling point, °C
Vapor pressure, mmHg
7270 (25 C)
Vapor density (air=1)
Odor Threshold Odor threshold 36,000 mg/m3
0.515 g/cm3 (10 C) (liquid)
Solubility in water
100 mg/L (20 C)
0.2 cp (-40 C)
15.15 g/s2 (-40 C)
1.3407 (-42 C)
1.61 (0 C)
Partition coefficient, pKow
0.003/K at 15 C
Heat of fusion
Heat of vaporization
Heat of combustion
Hazards and Protection.
Specific requirements are listed in NFPA 58. Cylinder storage locations should be well-protected, well-ventilated, dry, and separated from combustible materials Cylinders should never knowingly be allowed to reach a temperature exceeding 52C. Cylinders of propane should be separated from oxygen cylinders or other oxidizers by a minimum distance of 20 ft., or by a barrier of non-combustible material at least 5 ft. high having a fire resistance rating of at least hour. Full and empty cylinders should be segregated. Use a first-in, first-out inventory system to prevent full containers from being stored for long periods of time. Cylinders should be stored upright with valve protection cap in place and firmly secured to prevent falling or being knocked over. Protect cylinders from physical damage; do not drag, roll, slide or drop. Use a suitable hand truck for cylinder movement.
Propane is heavier than air and may collect in low areas that are without proper ventilation. Leak check system with leak detection solution, never with flame. If user experiences difficulty operating cylinder valve, discontinue use and contact supplier. Never insert an object (e.g., wrench, screwdriver, pry bar, etc.) into valve cap openings. Doing so may damage valve, causing a leak to occur. Use an adjustable strap wrench to remove over-tight or rusted caps. Non-sparking tools should be used. Never strike an arc on a compressed gas cylinder or make a cylinder a part of an electrical circuit. Electrically bond and ground cylinder when transferring liquid product
Wear appropriate protective gloves, clothing and goggles. Always wear thermal protective clothing when handling refrigerated/cryogenic liquids.
Wear positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA).
Evacuate the immediate area. Eliminate any possible sources of ignition, and provide maximum explosion-proof ventilation. Shut off source of propane, if possible. If leaking from cylinder, or valve, contact your supplier. Never enter a confined space or other area where the concentration is greater than 10% of the lower flammable limit which is 0.22%.
Stable at normal temperratures and pressures.
Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents.
At 650 C decomposes to ethylene and ethane.
Upper exp. limit, %
Lower exp. limit, %
Evacuate all personnel from danger area. Immediately cool container with water spray from maximum distance, taking care not to extinguish flames. If flames are accidentally extinguished, explosive re-ignition may occur. Stop flow of gas if without risk while continuing cooling water spray. Extinguish using CO2, dry chemical, water spray or fog for surrounding area. Do not extinguish until propane source is shut off.
Very flammable, combustion imminent.
Containers may explode. Vapor is heavier than air and may travel a long distance to a source of ignition and flash back.
OSHA PEL: TWA 1000 ppm (1800 mg/m3) NIOSH REL: TWA 1000 ppm (1800 mg/m3) NIOSH IDLH: 2100 ppm LEL
Rapid breathing and rapid heart rate are common. In severe cases abnormally low blood pressure, apnea, and cardiac arrest develop. Various disturbances including headache, dizziness, mood disturbances, numbness of the extremities, sleepiness, mental confusion, poor judgement and coordination, and memory loss may occur. Prolonged or severe hypoxia results in unconsciousness. Prolonged asphyxia may produce CNS injury. Hemiparesis has been reported with volatile substance abuse. Cerebral edema with brainstem herniation may occur. Seizures have been reported following intentional inhalation.
Unlikely route of exposure.
Simple asphyxiant. It should be noted that before suffocation could occur, the lower flammability limit of propane in air would be exceeded; possibly causing both an oxygen-deficient and explosive atmosphere. Exposure to concentrations (> 10%) may cause dizziness. Exposure to atmospheres containing 8-10% or less oxygen will bring about unconsciousness without warning, and so quickly that the individuals cannot help or protect themselves. Lack of sufficient oxygen may cause serious injury or death.
ontact with liquid or cold vapor can cause frostbite.
Contact with liquid or cold vapor can cause freezing of tissue.
Seek medical assistance.
Administer 100% humidified supplemental oxygen with assisted ventilation as required. If hypoxia has been severe or prolonged, carefully evaluate for neurologic sequelae and provide supportive treatment as indicated.
Rewarming and a variety of topical treatments are indicated for frostbite injury. See main section for more information.
Irrigate exposed eyes with copious amounts of tepid water for at least 15 minutes. If irritation, pain, swelling, lacrimation, or photophobia persist, the patient should be seen in a health care facility.