Colorless or white crystals when pure, straw-colored or pink crystals when impure, unpleasant, penetrating, medicinal odor.
Chemical intermediate for the acaricide, ovex, rodenticide, phosacetin, pharmaceuticals, denaturant for alcohol, selective solvent in refining mineral oils.
Registry Numbers and Inventories.
EC Index Number
Harmful; Dangerous for the Environment
R 20/21/22 51/53
S 28 61
Drug; Mutagen; Reproductive Effector; Human Data; Primary Irritant
Swiss Giftliste 1
Japan ENCS (MITI)
Melting point, °C
41 - 44
Boiling point, °C
Vapor pressure, mmHg
0.078 (25 C)
Vapor density (air=1)
0.013% (20 C) (calculated)
Odor Threshold Odor threshold 30 ppm
1.31 g/cm3 (20 C)
Solubility in water
4.99 cp @ 50C
32.3 g/s2 (131 C)
1.5579 (40 C)
Partition coefficient, pKow
Heat of vaporization
Heat of combustion
Hazards and Protection.
Keep away from heat, sparks, and flame. Store in a tightly closed container. Store in a cool, dry, well-ventilated area away from incompatible substances. Storage under a nitrogen blanket has been recommended. Store protected from moisture.
Minimize dust generation and accumulation. Avoid contact with eyes, skin, and clothing. Keep container tightly closed. Avoid ingestion and inhalation. Use with adequate ventilation. Wash clothing before reuse. Discard contaminated shoes.
Eyes: Wear appropriate protective eyeglasses or chemical safety goggles as described by OSHA's eye and face protection regulations in 29 CFR 1910.133 or European Standard EN166. Skin: Wear natural rubber gloves, apron, and/or clothing. Wear appropriate protective gloves to prevent skin exposure. Clothing: Wear natural rubber gloves, apron, and/or clothing. Wear appropriate protective clothing to prevent skin exposure.
A respiratory protection program that meets OSHA's 29 CFR 1910.134 and ANSI Z88.2 requirements or European Standard EN 149 must be followed whenever workplace conditions warrant a respirator's use.
Avoid runoff into storm sewers and ditches which lead to waterways. Clean up spills immediately, using the appropriate protective equipment. Sweep up, then place into a suitable container for disposal. Avoid generating dusty conditions. Remove all sources of ignition. Provide ventilation.
Stable at room temperature in closed containers under normal storage and handling conditions.
Moisture, active metals, strong oxidizing agents, acid anhydrides, acid chlorides.
Hydrogen chloride, carbon monoxide, irritating and toxic fumes and gases, carbon dioxide.
Upper exp. limit, %
Lower exp. limit, %
Wear a self-contained breathing apparatus in pressure-demand, MSHA/NIOSH (approved or equivalent), and full protective gear. During a fire, irritating and highly toxic gases may be generated by thermal decomposition or combustion. Use water spray to keep fire-exposed containers cool. May polymerize explosively when involved in a fire. Contact with metals may evolve flammable hydrogen gas. Containers may explode when heated. Combustible material; may burn but does not ignite readily. Extinguishing media: Do NOT get water inside containers. For small fires, use dry chemical, carbon dioxide, or water spray. For large fires, use dry chemical, carbon dioxide, alcohol-resistant foam, or water spray. Cool containers with flooding quantities of water until well after fire is out.
Combustible when exposed to heat or flame
When heated, vapors may form explosive mixtures with air: indoors, outdoors, and sewers explosion hazards.
Toxic and irritating hydrogen chloride and chlorine gases may form in fires.
OEL-RUSSIA:STEL 1 mg/m3;Skin
May cause liver and kidney damage. May cause methemoglobinemia, which is characterized by chocolate-brown colored blood, headache, weakness, dizziness, breath shortness, cyanosis, rapid heart rate, unconsciousness and possible death. Effects may be delayed. Reproductive effects have been reported in animals.
May cause gastrointestinal irritation with nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. May cause liver and kidney damage. Methemoglobinemia is characterized by dizziness, drowsiness, headache, breath shortness, cyanosis with bluish skin, rapid heart rate and chocolate-brown colored blood. May be harmful if swallowed. Overexposure may cause methemoglobinemia. May cause pallor, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, weakness, darkened urine, headache, sweating, convulsions, cyanosis, unconsciousness, respiratory failure and death. May cause burning sensation in lips, mouth, and throat and feeling of constriction or pain in throat or chest. Tingling or pain in hands may also occur.
Causes respiratory tract irritation. May cause liver and kidney damage. May cause effects similar to those described for ingestion. Methemoglobinemia is characterized by dizziness, drowsiness, headache, breath shortness, cyanosis with bluish skin, rapid heart rate and chocolate-brown blood. Inhalation can cause systemic acidosis and methemoglobinemia. Can produce delayed pulmonary edema.
Causes severe skin irritation. May be absorbed through the skin. Contact with the skin may cause staining, inflammation, and thickening of the skin.
Causes severe eye irritation. May cause chemical conjunctivitis.
Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person. Get medical aid. Do NOT induce vomiting. If conscious and alert, rinse mouth and drink 2-4 cupfuls of milk or water.
Remove from exposure to fresh air immediately. If not breathing, give artificial respiration. If breathing is difficult, give oxygen. Get medical aid. DO NOT use mouth-to-mouth respiration.
Get medical aid. Flush skin with plenty of soap and water for at least 15 minutes while removing contaminated clothing and shoes. Discard contaminated clothing in a manner which limits further exposure. Destroy contaminated shoes.
Get medical aid. Do NOT allow victim to rub or keep eyes closed. Extensive irrigation is required (at least 30 minutes).
USCG CHRIS Code
2908 10 00
Std. Transport #