p-Dinitrobenzene

  • 1,4-Dinitrobenzene
  • 1,4-Dinitrobenzol
  • 1,4-DNB
Formula
1,4-(NO2)2C6H4
Structure
Description
Colorless to yellow solid.
Uses
Organic synthesis, dyes, camphor substitute in cellulose nitrate. Dinitrobenzene.

Registry Numbers and Inventories.
CAS
100-25-4
EC (EINECS/ELINCS)
202-833-7
EC Index Number
609-004-00-2
EC Class
Very toxic; Danger of cumulative effects; Dangerous for the Environment
R 26/27/28 33 50/53
S 28 36/37 45 60 61
RTECS
CZ7525000
RTECS class
Mutagen
UN (DOT)
1597
Merck
13,3301
Beilstein/Gmelin
1105828
Beilstein Reference
4-05-00-00741
Swiss Giftliste 1
G-5455
Canada DSL/NDSL
DSL
US TSCA
Listed
Austrailia AICS
Listed
New Zealand
Listed
Japan ENCS (MITI)
Listed
Korea ECL
Listed

Properties.
Formula
C6H4N2O4
Formula mass
168.11
Melting point, °C
172
Boiling point, °C
299
Vapor pressure, mmHg
2.1 (25 C)
Vapor density (air=1)
5.8
Saturation Concentration
0.1% at 20 C (calculated)
Density
1.625 g/cm3
Solubility in water
0.1 g/L
Surface tension
34.4 g/s2 (176 C)
Partition coefficient, pKow
1.46
Heat of vaporization
51.8 kJ/mol
Heat of combustion
-2912 kJ/mol

Hazards and Protection.
Storage
Keep away from heat, sparks, and flame. Keep away from sources of ignition. Keep container closed when not in use. Store in a tightly closed container. Store in a cool, dry, well-ventilated area away from incompatible substances.
Handling
Wash thoroughly after handling. Remove contaminated clothing and wash before reuse. Use only in a well ventilated area. Minimize dust generation and accumulation. Avoid contact with eyes, skin, and clothing. Keep container tightly closed. Avoid contact with heat, sparks and flame. Do not ingest or inhale. Avoid mechanical shock and friction.
Protection
Eyes: Wear appropriate protective eyeglasses or chemical safety goggles as described by OSHA's eye and face protection regulations in 29 CFR 1910.133 or European Standard EN166. Skin: Wear appropriate protective gloves to prevent skin exposure. Clothing: Wear appropriate protective clothing to prevent skin exposure.
Respirators
Follow the OSHA respirator regulations found in 29CFR 1910.134 or European Standard EN 149. Always use a NIOSH or European Standard EN 149 approved respirator when necessary.
Small spills/leaks
Clean up spills immediately, using the appropriate protective equipment. Avoid generating dusty conditions. Remove all sources of ignition. Provide ventilation.
Disposal code
9
Stability
Stable under normal temperatures and pressures.
Incompatibilities
Metals, strong oxidizing agents, caustics (e.g. ammonia, ammonium hydrozide, calcium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, sodium hydroxide).
Decomposition
Nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide.

Fire.
Flash Point,°C
150
Upper exp. limit, %
9.8
Lower exp. limit, %
1.8
Fire fighting
Wear a self-contained breathing apparatus in pressure-demand, MSHA/NIOSH (approved or equivalent), and full protective gear. Dusts at sufficient concentrations can form explosive mixtures with air. During a fire, irritating and highly toxic gases may be generated by thermal decomposition or combustion. Use water spray to keep fire-exposed containers cool. Material is shock sensitive and potentially explosive. Greatly increases the burning rate of combustible materials. Containers may explode when heated. Extinguishing media: Use water spray to cool fire-exposed containers. Use flooding quantities of water. Cool containers with flooding quantities of water until well after fire is out.
Fire potential
Slightly flammable. Combustible, often explosive.
Hazards
Containers may explode when heated.
Combustion products
When heated to decomposition toxic fumes of oxides of nitrogen released.
Health
3
 
Flammability
1
 
 
Reactivity
4
 

Health.
Exposure limit(s)
TLV: 0.15 ppm; 1.0 mg/m3 (as TWA) (skin) (ACGIH 1997). OSHA PEL: TWA 1 mg/m3 skin NIOSH REL: TWA 1 mg/m3 skin NIOSH IDLH: 50 mg/m3
Poison_Class
2
Exposure effects
Chronic inhalation may cause effects similar to those of acute inhalation. May cause anemia and other blood cell abnormalities.
   Ingestion
May be fatal if swallowed. May cause irritation of the digestive tract. May cause liver damage. May cause methemoglobinemia, cyanosis, convulsions, and death. May cause tissue anoxia, characterized by weakness, headache, dizziness, confusion, cyanosis, weak and irregular heart beat, collapse, unconsciousness, convulsions, coma and death. Methemoglobinemia is characterized by dizziness, drowsiness, headache, breath shortness, cyanosis with bluish skin, rapid heart rate and chocolate-brown colored blood.
   Inhalation
Causes respiratory tract irritation. May cause effects similar to those described for ingestion.
   Skin
May be absorbed through the skin. Absorption into the body may cause cyanosis. May cause yellow-brown discoloration of the hair and exposed of workers has been reported.
   Eyes
May cause eye irritation. May cause visual impairment. Contact with th eye may cause yellow discoloration of the conjunctiva and sclera.

First aid
 
   Ingestion
Do NOT induce vomiting. If victim is conscious and alert, give 2-4 cupfuls of milk or water. Get medical aid immediately. Treat patient as for inhalation.
   Inhalation
Get medical aid immediately. Remove from exposure to fresh air immediately. If breathing is difficult, give oxygen. DO NOT use mouth-to-mouth respiration. If breathing has ceased apply artificial respiration using oxygen and a suitable mechanical device such as a bag and a mask.
   Skin
Get medical aid immediately. Flush skin with plenty of soap and water for at least 15 minutes while removing contaminated clothing and shoes. SPEEDY ACTION IS CRITICAL! Treat patient as for inhalation.
   Eyes
Flush eyes with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes, occasionally lifting the upper and lower eyelids. Get medical aid immediately.

Transport.
UN number
1597
Response guide
Hazard class
6.1
Packing Group
II
 
USCG CHRIS Code
DNZ
 
HS Code
2904 20 00