Sodium chloride

  • Table salt
  • Rock salt
Formula
NaCl
Structure
Description
Colorless, transparent crystals or white crystalline powder, odorless, hygroscopic.
Uses
In the production of chemicals (sodium hydroxide, soda ash, hydrogen chloride, chlorine, metallic sodium), ceramic glazes, metallurgy, curing hides, food preservative, mineral waters, soap manufacture (salting out), home water softeners, highway deicing, regeneration of ion-exchange resins, photography, food seasoning, herbicide, fire extinguishing, nuclear reactors, mouthwash, medicine (heat exhaustion), salting out dyestuffs, supercooled solutions. Single crystals are used for spectroscopy, uv and infrared transmissions.

Registry Numbers and Inventories.
CAS
7647-14-5
EC (EINECS/ELINCS)
231-598-3
RTECS
VZ4725000
RTECS class
Agricultural Chemical and Pesticide; Mutagen; Reproductive Effector; Human Data; Primary Irritant
Merck
12,8742
Beilstein/Gmelin
13673 (G)
EPA OPP
13905
Swiss Giftliste 1
G-2580
Canada DSL/NDSL
DSL
US TSCA
Listed
Austrailia AICS
Listed
New Zealand
Listed
Japan ENCS (MITI)
Listed
Korea ECL
Listed

Properties.
Formula
ClNa
Formula mass
58.44
Melting point, °C
801
Boiling point, °C
1413
Vapor pressure, mmHg
9.01575 (1026.85 C)
Saturation Concentration
Approximately zero
Density
2.16 g/cm3
Solubility in water
360 g/L
Thermal expansion
0.000118 - 0.000232/K
Heat of fusion
28.16 kJ/mol

Hazards and Protection.
Storage
Store in a cool, dry, well-ventilated area away from incompatible substances.
Handling
Use with adequate ventilation. Minimize dust generation and accumulation. Avoid contact with eyes, skin, and clothing. Keep container tightly closed. Do not ingest or inhale.
Protection
Eyes: Wear safety glasses with side shields. Skin: Wear appropriate gloves to prevent skin exposure. Clothing: Wear appropriate protective clothing to minimize contact with skin.
Respirators
A NIOSH/MSHA approved air purifying dust or mist respirator or European Standard EN 149.
Small spills/leaks
Vacuum or sweep up material and place into a suitable disposal container. Clean up spills immediately, using the appropriate protective equipment. Avoid generating dusty conditions.
Disposal code
14
Stability
Stable under normal shipping and handling conditions.
Incompatibilities
Reacts with most nonnoble metals such as iron or steel, building materials (such as cement), bromine, or trifluoride. Potentially explosive reaction with dichloromaleic anhydride + urea. Electrolysis of mixtures with nitrogen compounds may form explosive nitrogen trichloride.
Decomposition
Toxic fumes of sodium oxide.

Fire.
Fire fighting
Fires involving this chemical can be controlled with a dry chemical, carbon dioxide, foam or Halon extinguisher.
Health
1
 
Flammability
0
 
 
Reactivity
0
 

Health.
Poison_Class
-
Exposure effects
Hypernatremia may produce restlessness, irritability, dizziness, progressive obtundation, reduced salivation, tearing, seizures and coma. Hyperosmolarity of cerebral fluids may lead to cellular crenation and irreversible neurologic damage.
   Ingestion
Ingestion of large amounts may cause gastrointestinal irritation. Ingestion of large amounts may cause nausea and vomiting, rigidity or convulsions. Continued exposure can produce coma, dehydration, and internal organ
   Inhalation
May cause respiratory tract irritation.
   Skin
May cause skin irritation.
   Eyes
May cause eye irritation.

First aid
 
   Ingestion
If victim is conscious and alert, give 2-4 cupfuls of milk or water. Get medical aid. Wash mouth out with water.
   Inhalation
Remove from exposure to fresh air immediately. If not breathing, give artificial respiration. If breathing is difficult, give oxygen. Get medical aid if cough or other symptoms appear.
   Skin
Flush skin with plenty of soap and water for at least 15 minutes while removing contaminated clothing and shoes. Get medical aid if irritation develops or persists. Wash clothing before reuse.
   Eyes
Flush eyes with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes, occasionally lifting the upper and lower eyelids. Get medical aid.

Transport.
HS Code
3822 00 00