Sodium hypochlorite

  • Sodium chloride oxide
  • Sodium oxychloride
  • Hypochlorous acid, sodium salt
Formula
NaClO
Structure
Description
Greenish yellow liquid. Disagreeable, sweetish odor. Aqueous solution produced by adding chlorine to water.
Uses
Bleaching agent, household & laundry bleaching agent, bleaching agent in paper, pulp, textile indust, disinfectant for glass, ceramics & water, algicide & molluscicide in cooling water for power stations, bleach in alpha-olefin sulfonate production, reactant in hydrazine mfr.

Registry Numbers and Inventories.
CAS
7681-52-9
EC (EINECS/ELINCS)
231-668-3
EC Index Number
017-011-00-1
EC Class
Corrosive; Contact with acids liberates toxic gas
R 31 34
S 28 45 50
RTECS
NH3486300
RTECS class
Tumorigen; Mutagen; Human Data; Primary Irritant
UN (DOT)
1791
Merck
12,8773
Beilstein/Gmelin
8091 (G)
EPA OPP
14703
Swiss Giftliste 1
G-4495
Canada DSL/NDSL
DSL
US TSCA
Listed
Austrailia AICS
Listed
New Zealand
Listed
Japan ENCS (MITI)
Listed
Korea ECL
Listed

Properties.
Formula
ClNaO
Formula mass
74.44
Melting point, °C
-6
Vapor pressure, mmHg
17.5 (20 C)
Density
1.07 - 1.14 g/cm3
Solubility in water
Miscible

Hazards and Protection.
Storage
Keep container closed when not in use. Store in a tightly closed container. Store in a cool, dry, well-ventilated area away from incompatible substances. Refrigerator (approx 4 C).
C E F
Handling
Avoid breathing dust, vapor, mist, or gas. Avoid contact with skin and eyes. Do not get in eyes, on skin, or on clothing. Keep container tightly closed. Do not ingest or inhale. Use with adequate ventilation. Use only in a chemical fume hood. Discard contaminated shoes.
Protection
Eyes: Wear appropriate protective eyeglasses or chemical safety goggles as described by OSHA's eye and face protection regulations in 29 CFR 1910.133 or European Standard EN166. Skin: Wear appropriate protective gloves to prevent skin exposure. Clothing: Wear appropriate protective clothing to prevent skin exposure.
Respirators
A full facepiece respirator with an acid gas cartridge may be worn up to 50 times the exposure limit or the maximum use concentration specified by the appropriate regulatory agency or respirator supplier, whichever is lowest. For emergencies or instances where the exposure levels are not known, use a full-facepiece positive-pressure, air-supplied respirator.
Small spills/leaks
Absorb spill with inert material, (e.g., dry sand or earth), then place into a chemical waste container. Clean up spills immediately, using the appropriate protective equipment. Provide ventilation.
Stability
Slowly decomposes on contact with air. Rate increases with the concentration and temperature. Exposure to sunlight accelerates decomposition. Sodium hypochlorite becomes less toxic with age.
Incompatibilities
Ammonia (chloramine gas may evolve),amines, ammonium salts, aziridine, methanol, phenyl acetonitrile, cellulose, ethyleneimine, oxidizable metals, acids, soaps, and bisulfates.
Decomposition
Hydrogen chloride, chlorine, sodium oxide.

Fire.
Fire fighting
Wear a self-contained breathing apparatus in pressure-demand, MSHA/NIOSH (approved or equivalent), and full protective gear. During a fire, irritating and highly toxic gases may be generated by thermal decomposition or combustion. Substance is noncombustible. Oxidizer. Greatly increases the burning rate of combustible materials. Extinguishing media: Use extinguishing media most appropriate for the surrounding fire.
Fire potential
Nonflammable solution. Solid material may cause fire when brought into contact with organic materials.
Hazards
Contact with metals may evolve flammable hydrogen gas.
Combustion products
Releases chlorine when heated above 35 C
Health
2
 
Flammability
0
 
 
Reactivity
1
 
 
Special
O

Health.
Poison_Class
5
Exposure effects
Lethargy may develop in patients with significant pulmonary injury after chlorine or chloramine inhalation. Coma is a rare finding after severe ingestion or inhalation. Injecting sodium hypochlorite beyond the root apex during root canal procedures has caused block of the mental nerve.
   Ingestion
Causes gastrointestinal irritation with nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. Causes gastrointestinal tract burns.
   Inhalation
May cause irritation to the respiratory tract, (nose and throat); symptoms may include coughing and sore throat.
   Skin
Causes skin irritation or burns, depending on concentration.
   Eyes
Contact may cause severe irritation and damage, especially at higher concentration.

First aid
 
   Ingestion
Do NOT induce vomiting. Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person. Get medical aid immediately. Wash mouth out with water.
   Inhalation
Get medical aid immediately. Remove from exposure to fresh air immediately. If breathing is difficult, give oxygen. DO NOT use mouth-to-mouth respiration. If breathing has ceased apply artificial respiration using oxygen and a suitable mechanical device such as a bag and a mask.
   Skin
Get medical aid immediately. Immediately flush skin with plenty of soap and water for at least 15 minutes while removing contaminated clothing and shoes. Wash clothing before reuse. Destroy contaminated shoes.
   Eyes
Flush eyes with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes, occasionally lifting the upper and lower eyelids. Get medical aid immediately. Do NOT allow victim to rub or keep eyes closed. Extensive irrigation is required (at least 30 minutes).

Transport.
UN number
1791
Response guide
Hazard class
8
Packing Group
II; III
 
USCG CHRIS Code
SHP
 
IMO Pollution Category
C
IMO Hazard code
S/P