Succinic acid

  • Amber acid
  • Butanedioic acid
  • Ethylenesuccinic acid
  • 1,2-Ethanedicarboxylic acid
  • Dihydrofumaric acid
  • Wormwood acid
Formula
HOOCCH2CH2COOH
Structure
Description
White crystals or shiny white odorless crystalline powder. Very acid taste.
Uses
Manufacture lacquers, dyes, esters for perfumes, succinates, in photography.

Registry Numbers and Inventories.
CAS
110-15-6
EC (EINECS/ELINCS)
203-740-4
EC Class
irritant
R 36/37/38
RTECS
WM4900000
RTECS class
Mutagen; Primary Irritant
Merck
12,9038
Beilstein/Gmelin
1754069
Beilstein Reference
4-02-00-01908
Swiss Giftliste 1
G-4531
Canada DSL/NDSL
DSL
US TSCA
Listed
Austrailia AICS
Listed
New Zealand
Listed
Japan ENCS (MITI)
Listed
Korea ECL
Listed

Properties.
Formula
C4H6O4
Formula mass
118.09
Boiling point, °C
235
Vapor pressure, mmHg
0.017 (25 C)
Density
1.624 g/cm3 (-143 C)
Solubility in water
Very soluble
Viscosity
1.46 cp (220 C)
Refractive index
1.45 (20 C)
pKa/pKb
4.24 (pKa)
Partition coefficient, pKow
-0.59
Heat of fusion
31.5 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization
52.1 kJ/mol
Heat of combustion
-1492 kJ/mol

Hazards and Protection.
Storage
Store in a tightly closed container. Keep from contact with oxidizing materials. Store in a cool, dry, well-ventilated area away from incompatible substances.
Handling
Wash thoroughly after handling. Remove contaminated clothing and wash before reuse. Use with adequate ventilation. Minimize dust generation and accumulation. May form flammable dust-air mixtures. Avoid contact with eyes, skin, and clothing. Keep container tightly closed. Avoid ingestion and inhalation. Wash clothing before reuse.
Protection
Eyes: Wear appropriate protective eyeglasses or chemical safety goggles as described by OSHA's eye and face protection regulations in 29 CFR 1910.133 or European Standard EN166. Skin: Wear appropriate protective gloves to prevent skin exposure. Clothing: Wear appropriate protective clothing to prevent skin exposure.
Respirators
A respiratory protection program that meets OSHA's 29 CFR 1910.134 and ANSI Z88.2 requirements or European Standard EN 149 must be followed whenever workplace conditions warrant a respirator's use. Follow the OSHA respirator regulations found in 29CFR 1910.134 or European Standard EN 149. Always use a NIOSH or European Standard EN 149 approved respirator when necessary.
Small spills/leaks
Clean up spills immediately, using the appropriate protective equipment. Sweep up, then place into a suitable container for disposal. Avoid generating dusty conditions. Provide ventilation.
Stability
Stable at room temperature in closed containers under normal storage and handling conditions.
Incompatibilities
Reacts exothermically to neutralize bases, both organic and inorganic Can react with active metals to form gaseous hydrogen and a metal salt Reacts slowly with cyanide salts to generate gaseous hydrogen cyanide Reacts with solutions of cyanides to cause the release of gaseous hydrogen cyanide May react with sulfites, nitrites, thiosulfates (to give H2S and SO3), dithionites (SO2), to generate flammable and/or toxic gases and heat.
Decomposition
Carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide.

Fire.
Flash Point,°C
111
Autoignition, °C
470
Upper exp. limit, %
14.4
Lower exp. limit, %
2.6
Fire fighting
Wear a self-contained breathing apparatus in pressure-demand, MSHA/NIOSH (approved or equivalent), and full protective gear. Dusts at sufficient concentrations can form explosive mixtures with air. During a fire, irritating and highly toxic gases may be generated by thermal decomposition or combustion. Extinguishing media: For small fires, use water spray, dry chemical, carbon dioxide or chemical foam. In case of fire use water spray, dry chemical, carbon dioxide, or appropriate foam.
Fire potential
This material is probably combustible.
Health
2
 
Flammability
0
 
 
Reactivity
0
 

Health.
Poison_Class
5
Exposure effects
Effects may be delayed.
   Ingestion
May cause gastrointestinal irritation with nausea, vomiting and diarrhea.
   Inhalation
Causes respiratory tract irritation. Can produce delayed pulmonary edema.
   Skin
Causes skin irritation. Contact with heated material can cause skin burns and irritation.
   Eyes
Causes eye irritation. May cause chemical conjunctivitis.

First aid
 
   Ingestion
Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person. Get medical aid immediately. Do NOT induce vomiting. If conscious and alert, rinse mouth and drink 2-4 cupfuls of milk or water.
   Inhalation
Remove from exposure to fresh air immediately. If not breathing, give artificial respiration. If breathing is difficult, give oxygen. Get medical aid.
   Skin
Get medical aid. Flush skin with plenty of soap and water for at least 15 minutes while removing contaminated clothing and shoes. Wash clothing before reuse.
   Eyes
Immediately flush eyes with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes, occasionally lifting the upper and lower eyelids. Get medical aid immediately.

Transport.
4. Organic acids
HS Code
2917 19 90