- Amber acid
- Butanedioic acid
- Ethylenesuccinic acid
- 1,2-Ethanedicarboxylic acid
- Dihydrofumaric acid
- Wormwood acid
White crystals or shiny white odorless crystalline powder. Very acid taste.
Manufacture lacquers, dyes, esters for perfumes, succinates, in photography.
Registry Numbers and Inventories.
S 26 36
Mutagen; Primary Irritant
Swiss Giftliste 1
Japan ENCS (MITI)
Boiling point, °C
Vapor pressure, mmHg
0.017 (25 C)
1.624 g/cm3 (-143 C)
Solubility in water
1.46 cp (220 C)
1.45 (20 C)
Partition coefficient, pKow
Heat of fusion
Heat of vaporization
Heat of combustion
Hazards and Protection.
Store in a tightly closed container. Keep from contact with oxidizing materials. Store in a cool, dry, well-ventilated area away from incompatible substances.
Wash thoroughly after handling. Remove contaminated clothing and wash before reuse. Use with adequate ventilation. Minimize dust generation and accumulation. May form flammable dust-air mixtures. Avoid contact with eyes, skin, and clothing. Keep container tightly closed. Avoid ingestion and inhalation. Wash clothing before reuse.
Eyes: Wear appropriate protective eyeglasses or chemical safety goggles as described by OSHA's eye and face protection regulations in 29 CFR 1910.133 or European Standard EN166. Skin: Wear appropriate protective gloves to prevent skin exposure. Clothing: Wear appropriate protective clothing to prevent skin exposure.
A respiratory protection program that meets OSHA's 29 CFR 1910.134 and ANSI Z88.2 requirements or European Standard EN 149 must be followed whenever workplace conditions warrant a respirator's use. Follow the OSHA respirator regulations found in 29CFR 1910.134 or European Standard EN 149. Always use a NIOSH or European Standard EN 149 approved respirator when necessary.
Clean up spills immediately, using the appropriate protective equipment. Sweep up, then place into a suitable container for disposal. Avoid generating dusty conditions. Provide ventilation.
Stable at room temperature in closed containers under normal storage and handling conditions.
Reacts exothermically to neutralize bases, both organic and inorganic Can react with active metals to form gaseous hydrogen and a metal salt Reacts slowly with cyanide salts to generate gaseous hydrogen cyanide Reacts with solutions of cyanides to cause the release of gaseous hydrogen cyanide May react with sulfites, nitrites, thiosulfates (to give H2S and SO3), dithionites (SO2), to generate flammable and/or toxic gases and heat.
Carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide.
Upper exp. limit, %
Lower exp. limit, %
Wear a self-contained breathing apparatus in pressure-demand, MSHA/NIOSH (approved or equivalent), and full protective gear. Dusts at sufficient concentrations can form explosive mixtures with air. During a fire, irritating and highly toxic gases may be generated by thermal decomposition or combustion. Extinguishing media: For small fires, use water spray, dry chemical, carbon dioxide or chemical foam. In case of fire use water spray, dry chemical, carbon dioxide, or appropriate foam.
This material is probably combustible.
Effects may be delayed.
May cause gastrointestinal irritation with nausea, vomiting and diarrhea.
Causes respiratory tract irritation. Can produce delayed pulmonary edema.
Causes skin irritation. Contact with heated material can cause skin burns and irritation.
Causes eye irritation. May cause chemical conjunctivitis.
Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person. Get medical aid immediately. Do NOT induce vomiting. If conscious and alert, rinse mouth and drink 2-4 cupfuls of milk or water.
Remove from exposure to fresh air immediately. If not breathing, give artificial respiration. If breathing is difficult, give oxygen. Get medical aid.
Get medical aid. Flush skin with plenty of soap and water for at least 15 minutes while removing contaminated clothing and shoes. Wash clothing before reuse.
Immediately flush eyes with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes, occasionally lifting the upper and lower eyelids. Get medical aid immediately.
4. Organic acids
2917 19 90