Sulfur, molten

  • Brimstone
  • Flowers of sulfur
Formula
S
Structure
Description
Molten solid. Yellow to reddish brown liquid at a temperature of about 140C with a characteristic rotten egg odor. Appearance
Uses
In manufacturing sulfuric acid, carbon disulfide, sulfites, nsecticides, plastics, enamels, metal-glass cements, in vulcanizing rubber, in syntheses of dyes, in making gunpowder, matches, for bleaching wood pulp, straw, wool, silk, felt, linen.

Registry Numbers and Inventories.
CAS
7704-34-9
EC (EINECS/ELINCS)
231-722-6
R 11 36
S 16 26 36
RTECS
WS4250000
RTECS class
Agricultural Chemical and Pesticide; Primary Irritant
UN (DOT)
2448
Merck
12,9142
Beilstein/Gmelin
16299 (G)
EPA OPP
77501
Swiss Giftliste 1
G-54929
Canada DSL/NDSL
DSL
US TSCA
Listed
Austrailia AICS
Listed
New Zealand
Listed

Properties.
Formula
S
Formula mass
32.06
Melting point, °C
113 - 119
Boiling point, °C
444.6
Vapor pressure, mmHg
0.075 (20 C)
Vapor density (air=1)
3.64
Critical temperature
1040
Density
2.36 g/cm3
Solubility in water
Insoluble
Viscosity
11.130 cp at 120C
Surface tension
60.8 g/s2
Refractive index
2.068
Dipole moment
0 D
Dielectric constant
3.48 (150 C)
Thermal expansion
0.00046/K (20 C)
Heat of fusion
1.2 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization
8.9 kJ/mol
Heat of combustion
-363 kJ/mol

Hazards and Protection.
Storage
Keep away from heat, sparks, and flame. Keep away from sources of ignition. Store in a tightly closed container. Store in a cool, dry, well-ventilated area away from incompatible substances.
Handling
Liquid sulfur should not be put into any tank, rail car or truck that contains trace quantities of hydrocarbons, or more than a trace of moisture. When unloading tank cars or trucks, workers should wear suitable protective equipment and stand to one side, upwind of the path of the escaping gas. The dome cover bolts should be loosened slowly to vent the gas pressure. Care should be taken against possible dangerous concentrations of hydrogen sulfide in the vicinity of the tank during steaming and during tank ventilating after loading.
Protection
Eyes: Wear appropriate protective eyeglasses or chemical safety goggles as described by OSHA's eye and face protection regulations in 29 CFR 1910.133 or European Standard EN166. Skin: Wear appropriate protective gloves to prevent skin exposure. Clothing: Wear appropriate protective clothing to prevent skin exposure.
Respirators
When Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) concentrations are unknown or are equal to or greater than 10 ppm, (as in such activities as: loading; unloading; guaging; cleaning large spills or upon entry into tanks, vessels, or other confined spaces; and during rescue of individuals suspected to be overexposed to H2S), use supplied-air (airline or self-contained breathing apparatus) respiratory protection (NIOSH/MSHA Approved). The respirators must be equipped with pressure-demand regulators and operated in the pressure demand mode ONLY. If airline units are used, a 5-minute egress bottle MUST also be carried. GAS MASKS OR OTHER AIR-PURIFYING RESPIRATORS MUST NEVER BE USED FOR H2S DUE TO POOR WARNING PROPERTIES OF THE GAS.
Small spills/leaks
Stop discharge and contain if safe to do so. ELIMINATE all ignition sources (no smoking, flares, sparks or flames in immediate area). Do not touch or walk through spilled material. Do not allow material to enter water sources or sewers. Shovel solid sulfur into containers with covers (avoid dusting) for recovery or disposal. If removal is not immediate, apply a cover material, preferably inert and basic (limestone), to the spilled area until recovery procedures begin. This will reduce the possible release of sulfuric acid in the water. Collect product and contaminated soil and water for recovery or disposal. Consider initial downwind evacuation for at least 100 meters.
Stability
Stable at room temperature in closed containers under normal storage and handling conditions.
Incompatibilities
Alkalis and oxidizing agents such as chlorine and fluorine. May react explosively with ammonia, ammonium nitrate, chlorine dioxide (bromates, chlorates, and iodates of barium, calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium or zinc), chlorate in presence of copper), chromic anhydride, silver bromate, lead dioxide, mercuric nitrate, all inorganic perchlorates, phosphorus trioxide, sodium nitrate, and zinc.
Decomposition
Sulfur oxides (SOx), including sulfur oxide and sulfur dioxide.

Fire.
Flash Point,°C
207
Autoignition, °C
232
Upper exp. limit, %
44
Lower exp. limit, %
4
Fire fighting
Wear full protective clothing and positive pressure breathing apparatus. Use fine spray or fog to control fire by preventing its spread and absorbing some of its heat. Use water spray to cool fire-exposed surfaces, protect personnel, and knock down toxic fumes. Water or foam may cause frothing of molten sulfur. Extinguish fire using agent suitable for surrounding fire. (Fire in liquid sulfur can be extinguished readily by closing container to exclude oxygen).
Fire potential
Flammable/combustible material.
Hazards
May be ignited by friction, heat, sparks or flames. Some may burn rapidly with flare burning effect. Powders, dusts, shavings, borings, turnings or cuttings may explode or burn with explosive violence. Substance may be transported in a molten form. May re-ignite after fire is extinguished.
Combustion products
Produces toxic sulfur dioxide gas.
Health
2
 
Flammability
1
 
 
Reactivity
0
 

Health.
Exposure limit(s)
ACGIH TLV: 10 mg/m3; OSHA PEL 15 mg/m3
Poison_Class
5
Exposure effects
Chronic inhalation may cause effects similar to those of acute inhalation. Effects may be delayed.
   Ingestion
Ingestion or direct contact with molten sulfur will cause severe thermal burns.
   Inhalation
Vapors are irritating to the nose, throat and respiratory tract, and may cause chronic bronchitis with chronic exposure. Hydrogen sulfide may not be sensed by smell at concentrations of 150 ppm or greater. Hydrogen sulfide is life threatening above 200 ppm. Inhalation at 200 - 250 ppm produces headache, dizziness, excitement, staggering and vomiting. Prolonged exposure to hydrogen sulfide in this concentration range may cause lung damage and exposure for 4 to 8 hours can cause death. Concentrations of 300-500 ppm (of hydrogen sulfide) cause these same effects sooner and more severely. Death can occur in 1 to 4 hours. At 500 ppm respiratory failure can occur in 5 minutes to 1 hour. Exposures above 500 ppm rapidly cause unconsciousness and death.
   Skin
May cause irritation with discomfort, and seen as local redness and possible swelling. Prolonged contact, as with clothing wetted with material, may cause more severe irritation and discomfort. Skin contact with hot or molten product can cause skin burns.
   Eyes
May cause irritation, experienced as mild discomfort and seen as slight excess redness of the eye. Eye contact with hot or molten product can cause eye burns.

First aid
 
   Ingestion
DO NOT INDUCE VOMITING. If victim is alert and not convulsing, rinse mouth and give 12 to 1 glass of water to dilute material. If spontaneous vomiting occurs, have victim lean forward with head down to avoid breathing in of vomitus, rinse mouth and administer more water. IMMEDIATELY contact local poison control centre. Vomiting may need to be induced but should be directed by a physician or a poison control center. IMMEDIATELY transport victim to an emergency facility.
   Inhalation
Remove from exposure to fresh air immediately. If not breathing, give artificial respiration. If breathing is difficult, give oxygen. Get medical aid if cough or other symptoms appear.
   Skin
Flush skin with plenty of soap and water for at least 15 minutes while removing contaminated clothing and shoes. Get medical aid if irritation develops or persists. Wash clothing before reuse.
   Eyes
Immediately flush eyes with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes, occasionally lifting the upper and lower eyelids. Get medical aid.

Transport.
UN number
2448
Response guide
Hazard class
4.1
Packing Group
III
 
USCG CHRIS Code
SXX
 
HS Code
2802 00 00
 
Std. Transport #
4945770
 
IMO Pollution Category
III
IMO Hazard code
S