Sulfur

  • Brimstone
  • Flowers of sulfur
Formula
S
Structure
Description
Yellow powder. Exists in several forms such as S2, S8 and polymeric.
Uses
In manufacturing sulfuric acid, carbon disulfide, sulfites, nsecticides, plastics, enamels, metal-glass cements, in vulcanizing rubber, in syntheses of dyes, in making gunpowder, matches, for bleaching wood pulp, straw, wool, silk, felt, linen.

Registry Numbers and Inventories.
CAS
7704-34-9
EC (EINECS/ELINCS)
231-722-6
R 11 36
S 16 26 36
RTECS
WS4250000
RTECS class
Agricultural Chemical and Pesticide; Primary Irritant
UN (DOT)
1350
Merck
12,9142
Beilstein/Gmelin
16299 (G)
EPA OPP
77501
Swiss Giftliste 1
G-54929
Canada DSL/NDSL
DSL
US TSCA
Listed
Austrailia AICS
Listed
New Zealand
Listed

Properties.
Formula
S
Formula mass
32.06
Melting point, °C
113 - 119
Boiling point, °C
445
Vapor pressure, mmHg
0.075 (20 C)
Vapor density (air=1)
3.64
Critical temperature
1040
Density
2.36 g/cm3
Solubility in water
Insoluble
Viscosity
11.130 cp at 120 C
Surface tension
60.8 g/s2
Refractive index
2.068
Dipole moment
0 D
Dielectric constant
3.48 (150 C)
Thermal expansion
0.00046/K (20 C)
Heat of fusion
1.2 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization
8.9 kJ/mol
Heat of combustion
-353 kJ/mol

Hazards and Protection.
Storage
Keep away from heat, sparks, and flame. Keep away from sources of ignition. Store in a tightly closed container. Store in a cool, dry, well-ventilated area away from incompatible substances.
B4
Handling
Wash thoroughly after handling. Remove contaminated clothing and wash before reuse. Minimize dust generation and accumulation. May form flammable dust-air mixtures. Avoid contact with eyes, skin, and clothing. Empty containers retain product residue, (liquid and/or vapor), and can be dangerous. Keep container tightly closed. Avoid contact with heat, sparks and flame. Use with adequate ventilation. Do not pressurize, cut, weld, braze, solder, drill, grind, or expose empty containers to heat, sparks or open flames.
Protection
Eyes: Wear appropriate protective eyeglasses or chemical safety goggles as described by OSHA's eye and face protection regulations in 29 CFR 1910.133 or European Standard EN166. Skin: Wear appropriate protective gloves to prevent skin exposure. Clothing: Wear appropriate protective clothing to prevent skin exposure.
Respirators
When Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) concentrations are unknown or are equal to or greater than 10 ppm, (as in such activities as: loading; unloading; guaging; cleaning large spills or upon entry into tanks, vessels, or other confined spaces; and during rescue of individuals suspected to be overexposed to H2S), use supplied-air (airline or self-contained breathing apparatus) respiratory protection (NIOSH/MSHA Approved). The respirators must be equipped with pressure-demand regulators and operated in the pressure demand mode ONLY. If airline units are used, a 5-minute egress bottle MUST also be carried. GAS MASKS OR OTHER AIR-PURIFYING RESPIRATORS MUST NEVER BE USED FOR H2S DUE TO POOR WARNING PROPERTIES OF THE GAS.
Small spills/leaks
Vacuum or sweep up material and place into a suitable disposal container. Clean up spills immediately, using the appropriate protective equipment. Scoop up with a nonsparking tool, then place into a suitable container for disposal. Avoid generating dusty conditions. Remove all sources of ignition. Provide ventilation.
Stability
Stable at room temperature in closed containers under normal storage and handling conditions.
Incompatibilities
Alkalis and oxidizing agents such as chlorine and fluorine. May react explosively with ammonia, ammonium nitrate, chlorine dioxide (bromates, chlorates, and iodates of barium, calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium or zinc), chlorate in presence of copper), chromic anhydride, silver bromate, lead dioxide, mercuric nitrate, all inorganic perchlorates, phosphorus trioxide, sodium nitrate, and zinc.
Decomposition
Sulfur oxides (SOx), including sulfur oxide and sulfur dioxide.

Fire.
Flash Point,°C
160
Autoignition, °C
235
Upper exp. limit, %
46
Lower exp. limit, %
3.3
Fire fighting
Wear full protective clothing and positive pressure breathing apparatus. Use fine spray or fog to control fire by preventing its spread and absorbing some of its heat. Use water spray to cool fire-exposed surfaces, protect personnel, and knock down toxic fumes. Water or foam may cause frothing of molten sulfur. Extinguish fire using agent suitable for surrounding fire. (Fire in liquid sulfur can be extinguished readily by closing container to exclude oxygen).
Fire potential
Flammable/combustible material.
Hazards
May be ignited by friction, heat, sparks or flames. Some may burn rapidly with flare burning effect. Powders, dusts, shavings, borings, turnings or cuttings may explode or burn with explosive violence. Substance may be transported in a molten form. May re-ignite after fire is extinguished.
Combustion products
Produces toxic sulfur dioxide gas.
Health
1
 
Flammability
1
 
 
Reactivity
0
 

Health.
Exposure limit(s)
ACGIH TLV: 10 mg/m3; OSHA PEL 15 mg/m3
Poison_Class
5
Exposure effects
Repeated inhalation may cause lung damage.
   Ingestion
May cause gastrointestinal irritation with nausea, vomiting and diarrhea.
   Inhalation
Vapors are irritating to the nose, throat and respiratory tract, and may cause chronic bronchitis with chronic exposure. Hydrogen sulfide may not be sensed by smell at concentrations of 150 ppm or greater. Hydrogen sulfide is life threatening above 200 ppm. Inhalation at 200 - 250 ppm produces headache, dizziness, excitement, staggering and vomiting. Prolonged exposure to hydrogen sulfide in this concentration range may cause lung damage and exposure for 4 to 8 hours can cause death. Concentrations of 300-500 ppm (of hydrogen sulfide) cause these same effects sooner and more severely. Death can occur in 1 to 4 hours. At 500 ppm respiratory failure can occur in 5 minutes to 1 hour. Exposures above 500 ppm rapidly cause unconsciousness and death.
   Skin
May cause irritation with discomfort, and seen as local redness and possible swelling. Prolonged contact, as with clothing wetted with material, may cause more severe irritation and discomfort. Skin contact with hot or molten product can cause skin burns.
   Eyes
May cause irritation, experienced as mild discomfort and seen as slight excess redness of the eye. Eye contact with hot or molten product can cause eye burns.

First aid
 
   Ingestion
DO NOT INDUCE VOMITING. If victim is alert and not convulsing, rinse mouth and give 12 to 1 glass of water to dilute material. If spontaneous vomiting occurs, have victim lean forward with head down to avoid breathing in of vomitus, rinse mouth and administer more water. IMMEDIATELY contact local poison control centre. Vomiting may need to be induced but should be directed by a physician or a poison control center. IMMEDIATELY transport victim to an emergency facility.
   Inhalation
Remove from exposure to fresh air immediately. If not breathing, give artificial respiration. If breathing is difficult, give oxygen. Get medical aid if cough or other symptoms appear.
   Skin
Flush skin with plenty of soap and water for at least 15 minutes while removing contaminated clothing and shoes. Get medical aid if irritation develops or persists. Wash clothing before reuse.
   Eyes
Immediately flush eyes with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes, occasionally lifting the upper and lower eyelids. Get medical aid.

Transport.
UN number
1350
Response guide
Hazard class
4.1
Packing Group
III
 
USCG CHRIS Code
SXY
 
HS Code
2802 00 00
 
Std. Transport #
4917403
 
IMO Pollution Category
III
IMO Hazard code
S