Sulfuric acid

  • Oil of vitrol
Formula
H2SO4
Structure
Description
Clear, colorless, odorless, dense, oily liquid when pure, yellow to dark brown when impure. Hygroscopic.
Uses
In the manufacture of dyestuffs, other acids, parchment paper, glue, purification of petroleum, pickling metal. Therap cat: dilute acid formerly in treatment of gastric hypoacidity. Concentrated acid formerly as a topical caustic.

Registry Numbers and Inventories.
CAS
7664-93-9
EC (EINECS/ELINCS)
231-639-5
EC Index Number
016-020-00-8
EC Class
Corrosive
S 26 30 45
RTECS
WS5600000
RTECS class
Agricultural Chemical and Pesticide; Tumorigen; Mutagen; Reproductive Effector; Human Data; Primary Irritant
UN (DOT)
1830
Merck
12,9147
Beilstein/Gmelin
2122 (G)
EPA OPP
78001
Swiss Giftliste 1
G-9513
Canada DSL/NDSL
DSL
US TSCA
Listed
Austrailia AICS
Listed
New Zealand
Listed
Japan ENCS (MITI)
Listed
Korea ECL
Listed

Properties.
Formula
H2O4S
Formula mass
98.08
Melting point, °C
-64
Boiling point, °C
337
Vapor pressure, mmHg
6E-5
Vapor density (air=1)
3.4
Saturation Concentration
Less than 395 ppm (0.04%) at 25 C (calculated)
Evaporization number
Probably very slow.
Odor Threshold Odor threshold 1.0 mg/m3
Density
1.39 g/cm3 (20 C)
Solubility in water
Very soluble
Viscosity
21 cp (25 C)
Surface tension
73.5 g/s2
Refractive index
1.41827 (20 C)
Dielectric constant
67 (25 C)
pKa/pKb
Strong acid
Thermal expansion
0.0005589/K at 20 C
Heat of fusion
10.7 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization
56 kJ/mol

Hazards and Protection.
Storage
Store in a cool, dry, ventilated storage area with acid resistant floors and good drainage. Protect from physical damage. Keep out of direct sunlight and away from heat, water, and incompatible materials. Do not wash out container and use it for other purposes. When diluting, always add the acid to water; never add water to the acid. When opening metal containers, use non-sparking tools because of the possibility of hydrogen gas being present. Containers of this material may be hazardous when empty since they retain product residues (vapors, liquid); observe all warnings and precautions listed for the product.
D1A D2A E
Handling
Wash thoroughly after handling. Remove contaminated clothing and wash before reuse. Do not get in eyes, on skin, or on clothing. Keep container tightly closed. Do not ingest or inhale. Do not allow contact with water. Use only in a chemical fume hood. Discard contaminated shoes. Keep from contact with moist air and steam.
Protection
Eyes: Wear appropriate protective eyeglasses or chemical safety goggles as described by OSHA's eye and face protection regulations in 29 CFR 1910.133 or European Standard EN166. Skin: Wear appropriate protective gloves to prevent skin exposure. Clothing: Wear appropriate protective clothing to prevent skin exposure.
Respirators
A full facepiece respirator with an acid gas cartridge and particulate filter (NIOSH type N100 filter) may be worn up to 50 times the exposure limit, or the maximum use concentration specified by the appropriate regulatory agency or respirator supplier, whichever is lowest. If oil particles (e.g. lubricants, cutting fluids, glycerine, etc.) are present, use a NIOSH type R or P particulate filter. For emergencies or instances where the exposure levels are not known, use a full-facepiece positive-pressure, air-supplied respirator.
Small spills/leaks
Avoid runoff into storm sewers and ditches which lead to waterways. Clean up spills immediately, using the appropriate protective equipment. Provide ventilation. Use water spray to reduce vapors, do not put water directly on leak, spill area or inside container. Cover with dry earth, dry sand, or other non-combustible material followed with plastic sheet to minimize spreading and contact with water. Keep combustibles (wood, paper, oil, etc.,) away from spilled material.
Disposal code
12
Stability
Stable under ordinary conditions of use and storage. Concentrated solutions react violently with water, spattering and liberating heat.
Incompatibilities
Bases, strong dehydrating agents, organic materials, finely powdered metals, moisture, carbides, chlorates, cyanides (e.g. potassium cyanide, sodium cyanide), azides, fulminates, picrates, nitrates, alkali halides, zinc, iodides, permanganates, hydrogen peroxides, perchlorates, nitromethane, phosphorus, nitrites, cyclopentadiene, cyclpentanone oxime, nitroaryl amines, lithium silicides, iron, mercuric nitride, benzene, potassium chlorates, steel, cesium acetylene carbide, trihydroxydiamino phosphate, phosphorus trioxide.
Decomposition
Oxides of sulfur, irritating and toxic fumes and gases.

Fire.
Fire fighting
Wear a self-contained breathing apparatus in pressure-demand, MSHA/NIOSH (approved or equivalent), and full protective gear. Strong oxidizer. Contact with combustible materials may cause a fire. Wear appropriate protective clothing to prevent contact with skin and eyes. Wear a self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) to prevent contact with thermal decomposition products. Contact with water can cause violent liberation of heat and splattering of the material. Contact with metals may evolve flammable hydrogen gas. Containers may explode when heated or if contaminated with water. Runoff from fire control or dilution water may cause pollution. Extinguishing media: Do NOT use water directly on fire. Use carbon dioxide or dry chemical. Do NOT get water inside containers. Cool containers with flooding quantities of water until well after fire is out. For large fires, flood fire area with large quantities of water, while knocking down vapors with water fog.
Fire potential
May burn but does not ignite readily.
Hazards
May ignite combustibles (wood, paper, oil, clothing, etc.). Substance will react with water (some violently), releasing corrosive and/or toxic gases. Flammable/toxic gases may accumulate in confined areas (basement, tanks, hopper/tank cars, etc.)Contact with metals may evolve flammable hydrogen gas. Containers may explode when heated or if contaminated with water. Substance may be transported in a molten form.
Combustion products
When heated, it emits highly toxic fumes.
Health
3
 
Flammability
0
 
 
Reactivity
2
 
 
Special
W

Health.
Exposure limit(s)
OSHA PEL: TWA 1 mg/m3 NIOSH REL: TWA 1 mg/m3 NIOSH IDLH: 15 mg/m3
Poison_Class
5
Exposure effects
Prolonged or repeated inhalation may cause kidney and lung damage. Prolonged or repeated skin contact may cause dermatitis. Prolonged or repeated inhalation may cause nosebleeds, nasal congestion, erosion of the teeth, perforation of the nasal septum, chest pain and bronchitis. Prolonged or repeated eye contact may cause conjunctivitis. May cause fetal effects. May cause cancer in humans. Laboratory experiments have resulted in mutagenic effects. May cause ischemic heart lesions.
   Ingestion
Corrosive. Swallowing can cause severe burns of the mouth, throat, and stomach, leading to death. Can cause sore throat, vomiting, diarrhea. Circulatory collapse with clammy skin, weak and rapid pulse, shallow respirations, and scanty urine may follow ingestion or skin contact. Circulatory shock is often the immediate cause of death.
   Inhalation
May cause severe irritation of the respiratory tract with sore throat, coughing, shortness of breath and delayed lung edema. Causes chemical burns to the respiratory tract. Inhalation may be fatal as a result of spasm, inflammation, edema of the larynx and bronchi, chemical pneumonitis and pulmonary edema. Causes corrosive action on the mucous membranes.
   Skin
Corrosive. Symptoms of redness, pain, and severe burn can occur. Circulatory collapse with clammy skin, weak and rapid pulse, shallow respirations, and scanty urine may follow skin contact or ingestion. Circulatory shock is often the immediate cause of death.
   Eyes
Corrosive. Contact can cause blurred vision, redness, pain and severe tissue burns. Can cause blindness.

First aid
 
   Ingestion
Do NOT induce vomiting. If victim is conscious and alert, give 2-4 cupfuls of milk or water. Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person. Get medical aid immediately.
   Inhalation
Get medical aid immediately. Remove from exposure to fresh air immediately. If breathing is difficult, give oxygen. DO NOT use mouth-to-mouth respiration. If breathing has ceased apply artificial respiration using oxygen and a suitable mechanical device such as a bag and a mask.
   Skin
In case of contact, immediately flush skin with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes while removing contaminated clothing and shoes. Wash clothing before reuse. Excess acid on skin can be neutralized with a 2% solution of bicarbonate of soda. Get medical attention immediately.
   Eyes
Get medical aid immediately. Do NOT allow victim to rub or keep eyes closed. Extensive irrigation is required (at least 30 minutes).

Transport.
UN number
1830
Response guide
Hazard class
8
Packing Group
II
 
USCG CHRIS Code
SAC
 
HS Code
2807 00 10
 
Std. Transport #
4932057
 
IMO Chemical Code
17
IMO Pollution Category
C
IMO Hazard code
S/P