Tetrahydrofuran

  • THF
  • Diethylene oxide
  • Tetramethylene oxide
  • 1,4-Epoxybutane
  • Oxacyclopentane
  • Cyclotetramethylene oxide
Formula
C4H8O
Structure
Description
Clear, colorless, mobile liquid with an ether-like odor.
Uses
Solvent for high polymer like polyvinyl chloride. As reaction medium for grignard & metal hydride reactions. In the synthesis of butyrolactone, succinic acid, 1,4-butanediol diacetate. Solvent in histological techniques and reverse phase HPLC.

Registry Numbers and Inventories.
CAS
109-99-9
EC (EINECS/ELINCS)
203-726-8
EC Index Number
603-025-00-0
EC Class
Highly flammable; Irritant
R 11 19 36/37
S 16 29 33
RTECS
LU5950000
RTECS class
Tumorigen; Mutagen; Reproductive Effector; Human Data
UN (DOT)
2056
Merck
12,9351
Beilstein/Gmelin
102391
Beilstein Reference
5-17-01-00027
RCRA
U213
Swiss Giftliste 1
G-2920
Canada DSL/NDSL
DSL
US TSCA
Listed
Austrailia AICS
Listed
New Zealand
Listed
Japan ENCS (MITI)
Listed
Korea ECL
Listed

Properties.
Formula
C4H8O
Formula mass
72.11
Melting point, °C
-108.5
Boiling point, °C
66
Decomposition point, °C
-0.15
Vapor pressure, mmHg
127 (20 C)
Vapor density (air=1)
2.5
Saturation Concentration
17.3% at 20 C; 19.1% at 20 C (calculated).
Evaporization number
8.0 (butyl acetate=1)
Odor Threshold Odor threshold 20-50 ppm
Critical temperature
267.0
Critical pressure
51.2
Density
0.888 g/cm3 (20 C)
Solubility in water
Miscible
Viscosity
0.49 cp; (20 C)
Surface tension
28 g/s2 @ 20 C
Refractive index
1.407 (20 C)
Dipole moment
1.63 D (20 C)
Dielectric constant
7.4 (20 C)
Partition coefficient, pKow
0.46
Heat of fusion
9.11 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization
32.0 kJ/mol
Heat of combustion
-2507 kJ/mol

Hazards and Protection.
Storage
Keep away from heat, sparks, and flame. Keep away from sources of ignition. Store in a cool place in the original container and protect from sunlight. Keep under a nitrogen blanket. Keep from contact with oxidizing materials. Flammables-area. Regularly check inhibitor levels to maintain peroxide levels below 1%. Store protected from moisture.
B2 D2B
Handling
Wash thoroughly after handling. Use only in a well ventilated area. Ground and bond containers when transferring material. Avoid contact with eyes, skin, and clothing. Empty containers retain product residue, (liquid and/or vapor), and can be dangerous. Keep container tightly closed. Avoid contact with heat, sparks and flame. Do not ingest or inhale. Prevent build up of vapors to explosive concentration. Do not pressurize, cut, weld, braze, solder, drill, grind, or expose empty containers to heat, sparks or open flames.
Protection
Eyes: Wear appropriate protective eyeglasses or chemical safety goggles as described by OSHA's eye and face protection regulations in 29 CFR 1910.133 or European Standard EN166. Skin: Wear appropriate protective gloves to prevent skin exposure. Clothing: Wear appropriate protective clothing to prevent skin exposure.
Respirators
A half-face organic vapor respirator may be worn for up to ten times the exposure limit, or the maximum use concentration specified by the appropriate regulatory agency or respirator supplier, whichever is lowest. A full-face piece organic vapor respirator may be worn up to 50 times the exposure limit, or the maximum use concentration specified by the appropriate regulatory agency or respirator supplier, whichever is lowest. For emergencies or instances where the exposure levels are not known, use a full-face piece positive-pressure, air-supplied respirator.
Small spills/leaks
Absorb spill with inert material, (e.g., dry sand or earth), then place into a chemical waste container. Use water spray to dilute spill to a non-flammable mixture. Avoid runoff into storm sewers and ditches which lead to waterways. Remove all sources of ignition. Use a spark-proof tool. Isolate area and deny entry. A vapor suppressing foam may be used to reduce vapors.
Disposal code
1
Stability
Stable in closed containers with oxygen and light excluded. Distillation or evaporation can concentrate peroxides (if present) to create an explosion hazard.
Incompatibilities
Tetrahydrofuran reacts violently with air on standing. LiAlH2, strong oxidizers, NaAlH2 and potassium hydroxide. Will attack some forms of plastics, rubbers and coatings.
Decomposition
Carbon monoxide, irritating and toxic fumes and gases, carbon dioxide.

Fire.
Flash Point,°C
-14
Autoignition, °C
321
Upper exp. limit, %
11.8
Lower exp. limit, %
2.0
Fire fighting
Wear full protective clothing and NIOSH-approved self-contained breathing apparatus with full facepiece operated in the pressure demand or other positive pressure mode. Do not extinguish fire unless flow can be stopped. Use water in flooding quantities as fog. Solid streams of water may be ineffective. Cool all affected containers with flooding quantities of water. Apply water from as far a distance as possible. Use alcohol foam, dry chemical or carbon dioxide.
Fire potential
Extremely Flammable Liquid and Vapor! Vapor may cause flash fire. Dangerous fire hazard when exposed to heat or flame.
Hazards
Vapor is heavier than air and may travel considerable distance to source of ignition and flash back.
Combustion products
Irritating vapor is generated when heated.
Health
2
 
Flammability
3
 
 
Reactivity
1
 

Health.
Exposure limit(s)
OSHA PEL: TWA 200 ppm (590 mg/m3) NIOSH REL: TWA 200 ppm (590 mg/m3) ST 250 ppm (735 mg/m3) NIOSH IDLH: 2000 ppm LEL
Poison_Class
3
Exposure effects
Repeated or high exposures may cause kidney or liver damage; may affect the lungs. Repeated skin exposure can cause dryness, cracking of skin and rash.
   Ingestion
Causes irritation to the gastrointestinal tract. Symptoms may include nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. May cause sore throat and abdominal pain. May cause liver or kidney injury.
   Inhalation
Causes irritation to the respiratory tract. Symptoms may include coughing, shortness of breath. THF is an anesthetic agent in high concentrations. Overexposure may cause dizziness, headache, nausea and possible fluid in the lungs. May cause liver, kidney or lung injury.
   Skin
Causes irritation to skin. Symptoms include redness, itching, and pain. May be absorbed through the skin.
   Eyes
Causes irritation, redness, and pain. Contact may cause permanent eye damage.

First aid
 
   Ingestion
Induce vomiting immediately as directed by medical personnel. Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person. Get medical attention.
   Inhalation
Get medical aid immediately. Remove from exposure to fresh air immediately. If breathing is difficult, give oxygen. DO NOT use mouth-to-mouth respiration. If breathing has ceased apply artificial respiration using oxygen and a suitable mechanical device such as a bag and a mask.
   Skin
Get medical aid. Immediately flush skin with plenty of soap and water for at least 15 minutes while removing contaminated clothing and shoes. Wash clothing before reuse.
   Eyes
Immediately flush eyes with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes, occasionally lifting the upper and lower eyelids. Get medical aid immediately.

Transport.
UN number
2056
Response guide
Hazard class
3
Packing Group
II
 
USCG CHRIS Code
THF
 
HS Code
2932 11 00
 
Std. Transport #
4908290 4908285
 
IMO Chemical Code
17
IMO Pollution Category
D
IMO Hazard code
S