- Diethylene oxide
- Tetramethylene oxide
- Cyclotetramethylene oxide
Clear, colorless, mobile liquid with an ether-like odor.
Solvent for high polymer like polyvinyl chloride. As reaction medium for grignard & metal hydride reactions. In the synthesis of butyrolactone, succinic acid, 1,4-butanediol diacetate. Solvent in histological techniques and reverse phase HPLC.
Registry Numbers and Inventories.
EC Index Number
Highly flammable; Irritant
R 11 19 36/37
S 16 29 33
Tumorigen; Mutagen; Reproductive Effector; Human Data
Swiss Giftliste 1
Japan ENCS (MITI)
Melting point, °C
Boiling point, °C
Decomposition point, °C
Vapor pressure, mmHg
127 (20 C)
Vapor density (air=1)
17.3% at 20 C; 19.1% at 20 C (calculated).
8.0 (butyl acetate=1)
Odor Threshold Odor threshold 20-50 ppm
0.888 g/cm3 (20 C)
Solubility in water
0.49 cp; (20 C)
28 g/s2 @ 20 C
1.407 (20 C)
1.63 D (20 C)
7.4 (20 C)
Partition coefficient, pKow
Heat of fusion
Heat of vaporization
Heat of combustion
Hazards and Protection.
Keep away from heat, sparks, and flame. Keep away from sources of ignition. Store in a cool place in the original container and protect from sunlight. Keep under a nitrogen blanket. Keep from contact with oxidizing materials. Flammables-area. Regularly check inhibitor levels to maintain peroxide levels below 1%. Store protected from moisture.
Wash thoroughly after handling. Use only in a well ventilated area. Ground and bond containers when transferring material. Avoid contact with eyes, skin, and clothing. Empty containers retain product residue, (liquid and/or vapor), and can be dangerous. Keep container tightly closed. Avoid contact with heat, sparks and flame. Do not ingest or inhale. Prevent build up of vapors to explosive concentration. Do not pressurize, cut, weld, braze, solder, drill, grind, or expose empty containers to heat, sparks or open flames.
Eyes: Wear appropriate protective eyeglasses or chemical safety goggles as described by OSHA's eye and face protection regulations in 29 CFR 1910.133 or European Standard EN166. Skin: Wear appropriate protective gloves to prevent skin exposure. Clothing: Wear appropriate protective clothing to prevent skin exposure.
A half-face organic vapor respirator may be worn for up to ten times the exposure limit, or the maximum use concentration specified by the appropriate regulatory agency or respirator supplier, whichever is lowest. A full-face piece organic vapor respirator may be worn up to 50 times the exposure limit, or the maximum use concentration specified by the appropriate regulatory agency or respirator supplier, whichever is lowest. For emergencies or instances where the exposure levels are not known, use a full-face piece positive-pressure, air-supplied respirator.
Absorb spill with inert material, (e.g., dry sand or earth), then place into a chemical waste container. Use water spray to dilute spill to a non-flammable mixture. Avoid runoff into storm sewers and ditches which lead to waterways. Remove all sources of ignition. Use a spark-proof tool. Isolate area and deny entry. A vapor suppressing foam may be used to reduce vapors.
Stable in closed containers with oxygen and light excluded. Distillation or evaporation can concentrate peroxides (if present) to create an explosion hazard.
Tetrahydrofuran reacts violently with air on standing. LiAlH2, strong oxidizers, NaAlH2 and potassium hydroxide. Will attack some forms of plastics, rubbers and coatings.
Carbon monoxide, irritating and toxic fumes and gases, carbon dioxide.
Upper exp. limit, %
Lower exp. limit, %
Wear full protective clothing and NIOSH-approved self-contained breathing apparatus with full facepiece operated in the pressure demand or other positive pressure mode. Do not extinguish fire unless flow can be stopped. Use water in flooding quantities as fog. Solid streams of water may be ineffective. Cool all affected containers with flooding quantities of water. Apply water from as far a distance as possible. Use alcohol foam, dry chemical or carbon dioxide.
Extremely Flammable Liquid and Vapor! Vapor may cause flash fire. Dangerous fire hazard when exposed to heat or flame.
Vapor is heavier than air and may travel considerable distance to source of ignition and flash back.
Irritating vapor is generated when heated.
OSHA PEL: TWA 200 ppm (590 mg/m3) NIOSH REL: TWA 200 ppm (590 mg/m3) ST 250 ppm (735 mg/m3) NIOSH IDLH: 2000 ppm LEL
Repeated or high exposures may cause kidney or liver damage; may affect the lungs. Repeated skin exposure can cause dryness, cracking of skin and rash.
Causes irritation to the gastrointestinal tract. Symptoms may include nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. May cause sore throat and abdominal pain. May cause liver or kidney injury.
Causes irritation to the respiratory tract. Symptoms may include coughing, shortness of breath. THF is an anesthetic agent in high concentrations. Overexposure may cause dizziness, headache, nausea and possible fluid in the lungs. May cause liver, kidney or lung injury.
Causes irritation to skin. Symptoms include redness, itching, and pain. May be absorbed through the skin.
Causes irritation, redness, and pain. Contact may cause permanent eye damage.
Induce vomiting immediately as directed by medical personnel. Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person. Get medical attention.
Get medical aid immediately. Remove from exposure to fresh air immediately. If breathing is difficult, give oxygen. DO NOT use mouth-to-mouth respiration. If breathing has ceased apply artificial respiration using oxygen and a suitable mechanical device such as a bag and a mask.
Get medical aid. Immediately flush skin with plenty of soap and water for at least 15 minutes while removing contaminated clothing and shoes. Wash clothing before reuse.
Immediately flush eyes with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes, occasionally lifting the upper and lower eyelids. Get medical aid immediately.