Toluene

  • Methylbenzene
  • Toluol
  • Phenyl methane
Formula
C6H5CH3
Structure
Description
Clear, colorless liquid with a benzene-like odor.
Uses
In manufacture benzoic acid, benzaldehyde, explosives, dyes, and many other organic compounds, as a solvent for paints, lacquers, gums, resins, in the extraction of various principles from plants, as gasoline additive.

Registry Numbers and Inventories.
CAS
108-88-3
EC (EINECS/ELINCS)
203-625-9
EC Index Number
601-021-00-3
EC Class
Highly flammable; Harmful
R 11 20
S 16 25 29 33
RTECS
XS5250000
RTECS class
Tumorigen; Mutagen; Reproductive Effector; Human Data; Primary Irritant
UN (DOT)
1294
Merck
12,9667
Beilstein/Gmelin
635760
Beilstein Reference
4-05-00-00766
RCRA
U220
EPA OPP
80601
Swiss Giftliste 1
G-2953
Canada DSL/NDSL
DSL
US TSCA
Listed
Austrailia AICS
Listed
New Zealand
Listed
Japan ENCS (MITI)
Listed
Korea ECL
Listed

Properties.
Formula
C7H8
Formula mass
92.14
Melting point, °C
-95
Boiling point, °C
110.6
Vapor pressure, mmHg
22 (20 C)
Vapor density (air=1)
3.14
Saturation Concentration
2.9% (20 C)
Evaporization number
2.24 (butyl acetate=1)
Odor Threshold Odor threshold 2.14 ppm
Critical temperature
315
Critical pressure
40.4
Density
0.867 g/cm3 (20 C)
Solubility in water
0.5 g/L (20 C)
Viscosity
0.778 cp @ 0C
Surface tension
29.71 g/s2 @ 10 C
Refractive index
1.4967 (20 C)
Dipole moment
0.36 D (20 C)
Dielectric constant
2.3 (25 C)
Partition coefficient, pKow
2.73
Heat of fusion
38.0 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization
38.01 kj/mol
Heat of combustion
-3910.3 kJ/mol

Hazards and Protection.
Storage
Keep away from heat, sparks, and flame. Keep away from sources of ignition. Store in a tightly closed container. Store in a cool, dry, well-ventilated area away from incompatible substances. Flammables-area.
B2 D2B
Handling
Wash thoroughly after handling. Use only in a well ventilated area. Ground and bond containers when transferring material. Avoid contact with eyes, skin, and clothing. Avoid contact with skin and eyes. Empty containers retain product residue, (liquid and/or vapor), and can be dangerous. Keep container tightly closed. Avoid contact with heat, sparks and flame. Do not pressurize, cut, weld, braze, solder, drill, grind, or expose empty containers to heat, sparks or open flames.
Protection
Eyes: Wear appropriate protective eyeglasses or chemical safety goggles as described by OSHA's eye and face protection regulations in 29 CFR 1910.133 or European Standard EN166. Skin: Wear appropriate protective gloves to prevent skin exposure. Clothing: Wear appropriate protective clothing to prevent skin exposure.
Respirators
A half-face organic vapor respirator may be worn for up to ten times the exposure limit, or the maximum use concentration specified by the appropriate regulatory agency or respirator supplier, whichever is lowest. A full-face piece organic vapor respirator may be worn up to 50 times the exposure limit, or the maximum use concentration specified by the appropriate regulatory agency or respirator supplier, whichever is lowest. For emergencies or instances where the exposure levels are not known, use a full-face piece positive-pressure, air-supplied respirator.
Small spills/leaks
Avoid runoff into storm sewers and ditches which lead to waterways. Use water spray to disperse the gas/vapor. Remove all sources of ignition. Absorb spill using an absorbent, non-combustible material such as earth, sand, or vermiculite. Provide ventilation. A vapor suppressing foam may be used to reduce vapors. Use water spray to reduce vapors, do not put water directly on leak, spill area or inside container.
Disposal code
1
Stability
Stable under ordinary conditions of use and storage. Containers may burst when heated.
Incompatibilities
Acids (mineral, oxidizing, e.g. chromic acid, hypochlorous acid, nitric acid, sulfuric acid), oxidizing agents (strong, e.g. bromine, hydrogen peroxide, nitrogen dioxide, potassium nitrate), water reactive substances (e.g. acetic anyhdride, alkyl aluminum chloride, calcium carbide, ethyl dichlorosilane).
Decomposition
Carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide.

Fire.
Flash Point,°C
7
Autoignition, °C
422
Upper exp. limit, %
819.0
Lower exp. limit, %
3.3
Fire fighting
Wear full protective clothing and NIOSH-approved self-contained breathing apparatus with full facepiece operated in the pressure demand or other positive pressure mode. Extinguish fire using agent suitable for type of surrounding fire. (Material itself does not burn or burns with difficulty.) Use foam, dry chemical, or carbon dioxide.
Fire potential
Flammable liquid and vapor.
Hazards
Dangerous fire hazard when exposed to heat or flame. Vapors can flow along surfaces to distant ignition source and flash back.
Combustion products
Moderately dangerous; when heated, emits toxic fumes which can react vigorously with oxidizing materials.
Health
2
 
Flammability
3
 
 
Reactivity
0
 

Health.
Exposure limit(s)
OSHA PEL: TWA 200 ppm C 300 ppm 500 ppm (10-minute maximum peak) NIOSH REL: TWA 100 ppm (375 mg/m3) ST 150 ppm (560 mg/m3) NIOSH IDLH: 500 ppm
Poison_Class
4
Exposure effects
Reports of chronic poisoning describe anemia, decreased blood cell count and bone marrow hypoplasia. Liver and kidney damage may occur. Repeated or prolonged contact has a defatting action, causing drying, redness, dermatitis. Exposure to toluene may affect the developing fetus.
   Ingestion
Swallowing may cause abdominal spasms and other symptoms that parallel over-exposure from inhalation. Aspiration of material into the lungs can cause chemical pneumonitis, which may be fatal.
   Inhalation
Inhalation may cause irritation of the upper respiratory tract. Symptoms of overexposure may include fatigue, confusion, headache, dizziness and drowsiness. Peculiar skin sensations (e. g. pins and needles) or numbness may be produced. Very high concentrations may cause unconsciousness and death.
   Skin
Causes irritation. May be absorbed through skin.
   Eyes
Causes severe eye irritation with redness and pain.

First aid
 
   Ingestion
Aspiration hazard. If swallowed, DO NOT INDUCE VOMITING. Give large quantities of water. Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person. Get medical attention immediately. If vomiting occurs, keep head below hips to prevent aspiration into lungs.
   Inhalation
Remove from exposure to fresh air immediately. If breathing is difficult, give oxygen. Get medical aid. DO NOT use mouth-to-mouth respiration. If breathing has ceased apply artificial respiration using oxygen and a suitable mechanical device such as a bag and a mask.
   Skin
Flush skin with plenty of soap and water for at least 15 minutes while removing contaminated clothing and shoes. Get medical aid if irritation develops or persists. Wash clothing before reuse.
   Eyes
Flush eyes with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes, occasionally lifting the upper and lower eyelids. Get medical aid immediately.

Transport.
UN number
1294
Response guide
Hazard class
3
Packing Group
II
 
USCG CHRIS Code
TOL
 
32 Aromatic hydrocarbons
HS Code
2902 30 00
 
Std. Transport #
4963316
 
IMO Chemical Code
17
IMO Pollution Category
C
IMO Hazard code
P