A colorless solution with a fishlike odor at low concentrations changing to ammonia-like odor at higher concentrations.
Organic synthesis, especially of choline salts, warning agent for natural gas, manufacture of disinfectants, flotation agent, insect attractant, quaternary ammonium compounds, plastics.
Registry Numbers and Inventories.
EC Index Number
Extremely flammable; Harmful; Corrosive
Swiss Giftliste 1
Japan ENCS (MITI)
Melting point, °C
Boiling point, °C
Vapor pressure, mmHg
681 (0 C)
Vapor density (air=1)
Odor Threshold Odor threshold 0.21 ppb
0.6709 g/cm3 (0 C)
Solubility in water
0.321 cp (25 C)
13.47 g/s2 (25 C)
Partition coefficient, pKow
Heat of fusion
Heat of vaporization
Heat of combustion
Hazards and Protection.
Keep away from heat, sparks, and flame. Keep away from sources of ignition. Store in a tightly closed container. Store in a cool, dry, well-ventilated area away from incompatible substances. Refrigerator/flammables.
Wash thoroughly after handling. Use with adequate ventilation. Ground and bond containers when transferring material. Avoid contact with eyes, skin, and clothing. Empty containers retain product residue, (liquid and/or vapor), and can be dangerous. Keep container tightly closed. Avoid contact with heat, sparks and flame. Do not ingest or inhale. Do not pressurize, cut, weld, braze, solder, drill, grind, or expose empty containers to heat, sparks or open flames.
Eyes: Wear appropriate protective eyeglasses or chemical safety goggles as described by OSHA's eye and face protection regulations in 29 CFR 1910.133 or European Standard EN166. Skin: Wear appropriate protective gloves to prevent skin exposure. Clothing: Wear appropriate protective clothing to prevent skin exposure.
Follow the OSHA respirator regulations found in 29CFR 1910.134 or European Standard EN 149. Always use a NIOSH or European Standard EN 149 approved respirator when necessary.
Absorb spill with inert material, (e.g., dry sand or earth), then place into a chemical waste container. Remove all sources of ignition.
Stable under normal temperatures and pressures.
May react with acids, oxidizing materials, chlorine, hypochlorite, halogenated compounds, reactive organic compounds and some metals, and mercury and nitrosating compounds. Self-reactive. Potentially explosive reaction with bbromine + heat, ethylene oxide, triethynyl-aluminum.
Nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, hydrocarbons, amines.
Upper exp. limit, %
Lower exp. limit, %
Do not extinguish fire unless flow can be stopped. Use water in flooding quantities as fog. Cool all affected containers with flooding quantities of water. Apply water from as far a distance as possible.
Flashback along vapor trail may occur. Vapor may explode if ignited in an enclosed area. Vapor is heavier than air and may travel a considerable distance to a source of ignition and flash back.
Fire will produce irritating, corrosive and/or toxic gases.
TLV (as TWA): 5 ppm; 12 mg/m3 ; as STEL: 15 ppm; 36 mg/m3 (ACGIH 1997). NIOSH REL: TWA 10 ppm (24 mg/m3) ST 15 ppm (36 mg/m3)
Prolonged or repeated skin contact may cause dermatitis.
Harmful if swallowed. May cause severe gastrointestinal tract irritation with nausea, vomiting and possible burns.
May cause severe irritation of the respiratory tract with sore throat, coughing, shortness of breath and delayed lung edema.
May cause severe irritation and possible burns.
Contact with eyes may cause severe irritation, and possible eye burns. Contact may cause ulceration of the conjunctiva and cornea.
Do NOT induce vomiting. If victim is conscious and alert, give 2-4 cupfuls of milk or water. Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person. Get medical aid immediately.
Get medical aid immediately. Remove from exposure to fresh air immediately. If not breathing, give artificial respiration. If breathing is difficult, give oxygen.
Get medical aid immediately. Immediately flush skin with plenty of soap and water for at least 15 minutes while removing contaminated clothing and shoes.
Immediately flush eyes with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes, occasionally lifting the upper and lower eyelids. Get medical aid immediately.