Tritium

  • T
  • Hydrogen-3
  • Triterium
Formula
T2
Structure
Description
Colorless, odorless gas. Radioactive.
Uses
Bombarding particle in cyclotrons, activator in self-luminous phosphors, in cold cathode tubes, tracer in biochemical research and various special problems in chemical analysis, luminous instrument dials, thermonuclear power research.

Registry Numbers and Inventories.
CAS
10028-17-8
EC (EINECS/ELINCS)
233-070-8
Merck
12,9891
Beilstein/Gmelin
16 (G)
Canada DSL/NDSL
DSL
US TSCA
Listed

Properties.
Formula
(3)H2
Formula mass
6.032
Melting point, °C
-254.54
Boiling point, °C
-248.12
Critical temperature
-232.56
Critical pressure
18.317

Hazards and Protection.
Storage
Keep sealed, away from non-protected areas. Follow approved radiation safety plan.
Handling
Follow approved radiation safety plan.
Protection
Beta radiation do not allow contaminated water to come in contact with skin or personal clothing. Wear waterproof protection. If the radioactivity is also airborne, a mask with air filter may be required.
Respirators
Wear radionuclide cartridge respirator.
Small spills/leaks
Evacuate area and contact radiation safety officer.
Stability
Stable at normal temperatures and pressures in a sealed container.
Incompatibilities
Strong oxidizing agents.
Decomposition
Radioactive tritium containing compounds.

Fire.
Fire fighting
Wear a self-contained breathing apparatus in pressure-demand, MSHA/NIOSH (approved or equivalent), and full protective gear. During a fire, irritating and highly toxic gases may be generated by thermal decomposition or combustion. Use agent most appropriate to extinguish fire.

Health.
Exposure effects
Supralethal radiation doses may result in headache, acute brain syndrome, alterations in mental status including coma, and (rarely) seizures within minutes of exposure. Prenatal ionizing radiation exposure may cause congenital anomalies, mental retardation, and an increased incidence of seizures.
   Ingestion
Gastrointestinal syndrome (nausea/vomiting) commonly occurs after doses of 9 to 20 gy and may occur following doses as low as 5 gy. Initial vomiting is followed by persistent diarrhea, which may be bloody.
   Inhalation
Pulmonary radiation injury may result in radiation pneumonitis and radiation pulmonary fibrosis.
   Skin
Thermonuclear burns may occur. If erythema is produced by a penetrating radiation, serious systemic injury is certain.

First aid
 
   Ingestion
Seek medical attention. If individual is drowsy or unconscious, do not give anything by mouth; place individual on the left side with the head down. Contact a physician, medical facility, or poison control center for advice about whether to induce vomiting. If possible, do not leave individual unattended.
   Inhalation
Monitoring exposed patients for contamination and decontamination procedures should be started. All personnel involved in handling patients should wear disposable protective clothing. The patient should be completely undressed and given a soap and water bath or shower (if the patient's condition permits and if the facility exists). Acute inhalation of radionuclides presents some difficult problems.
   Skin
Remove contaminated clothing. Wash exposed area with soap and water. If symptoms persist, seek medical attention. Launder clothing before reuse.
   Eyes
If symptoms develop, immediately move individual away from exposure and into fresh air. Flush eyes gently with water for at least 15 minutes while holding eyelids apart; seek immediate medical attention.

Transport.