Valeronitrile

  • Pentanenitrile
  • 1-Butyl cyanide
  • 1-Cyanobutane
Formula
CH3(CH2)3CN
Structure
Description
Clear colorless to yellow liquid.
Uses
Often used as a solvent.

Registry Numbers and Inventories.
CAS
110-59-8
EC (EINECS/ELINCS)
203-781-8
EC Class
flammable, harmful
R 10 22
S 23 36/37
RTECS
YV8195000
RTECS class
Other
UN (DOT)
2929
Merck
12,10043
Beilstein/Gmelin
1736706
Beilstein Reference
4-02-00-00875
Canada DSL/NDSL
NDSL
US TSCA
Listed
Austrailia AICS
Listed
New Zealand
Listed
Japan ENCS (MITI)
Listed

Properties.
Formula
C5H9N
Formula mass
83.13
Melting point, °C
-96
Boiling point, °C
139
Vapor pressure, mmHg
6 (25 C)
Vapor density (air=1)
2.8
Critical temperature
337
Critical pressure
35.33
Density
0.8164 g/cm3 (0 C)
Solubility in water
Insoluble
Viscosity
0.78 cp (19 C)
Surface tension
21.89 g/s2 (80 C)
Refractive index
1.3962 (20 C)
Partition coefficient, pKow
1.15
Heat of fusion
4.7 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization
36.1 kJ/mol

Hazards and Protection.
Storage
Keep away from sources of ignition. Store in a tightly closed container. Store in a cool, dry, well-ventilated area away from incompatible substances. Flammables-area.
Handling
Wash thoroughly after handling. Use only in a well ventilated area. Ground and bond containers when transferring material. Use spark-proof tools and explosion proof equipment. Avoid contact with eyes, skin, and clothing. Empty containers retain product residue, (liquid and/or vapor), and can be dangerous. Keep container tightly closed. Avoid contact with heat, sparks and flame. Avoid ingestion and inhalation. Do not pressurize, cut, weld, braze, solder, drill, grind, or expose empty containers to heat, sparks or open flames.
Protection
Eyes: Wear appropriate protective eyeglasses or chemical safety goggles as described by OSHA's eye and face protection regulations in 29 CFR 1910.133 or European Standard EN166. Skin: Wear appropriate protective gloves to prevent skin exposure. Clothing: Wear appropriate protective clothing to prevent skin exposure.
Respirators
Follow the OSHA respirator regulations found in 29CFR 1910.134 or European Standard EN 149. Always use a NIOSH or European Standard EN 149 approved respirator when necessary.
Small spills/leaks
Absorb spill with inert material, (e.g., dry sand or earth), then place into a chemical waste container. Avoid runoff into storm sewers and ditches which lead to waterways. Clean up spills immediately, using the appropriate protective equipment. Remove all sources of ignition. Use a spark-proof tool. Provide ventilation. A vapor suppressing foam may be used to reduce vapors.
Disposal code
9
Stability
Stable under normal temperatures and pressures.
Incompatibilities
Strong acids, strong bases, strong oxidizing agents, strong reducing agents.
Decomposition
Nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, irritating and toxic fumes and gases, carbon dioxide, nitrogen.

Fire.
Flash Point,°C
36
Upper exp. limit, %
9.6
Lower exp. limit, %
1.5
Fire fighting
Wear a self-contained breathing apparatus in pressure-demand, MSHA/NIOSH (approved or equivalent), and full protective gear. During a fire, irritating and highly toxic gases may be generated by thermal decomposition or combustion. Will burn if involved in a fire. Use water spray to keep fire-exposed containers cool. Containers may explode in the heat of a fire. Runoff from fire control or dilution water may cause pollution. Runoff to sewer may create fire or explosion hazard. Extinguishing media: For small fires, use dry chemical, carbon dioxide, water spray or alcohol-resistant foam. For large fires, use water spray, fog, or alcohol-resistant foam. Use water spray to cool fire-exposed containers. Water may be ineffective. Do NOT use straight streams of water.
Fire potential
This chemical is combustible.
Hazards
Vapors may form explosive mixtures with air. Vapors may travel to source of ignition and flash back. Most vapors are heavier than air. They will spread along ground and collect in low or confined areas (sewers, basements, tanks). Vapor explosion and poison hazard indoors, outdoors or in sewers.
Combustion products
Fire will produce irritating, corrosive and/or toxic gases.
Health
2
 
Flammability
2
 
 
Reactivity
0
 

Health.
Exposure effects
May be metabolized to cyanide which in turn acts by inhibiting cytochrome oxidase impairing cellular respiration. Effects may be delayed. Chronic exposure to cyanide solutions may lead to the development of a cyanide rash, characterized by itching, and by macular, papular, and vesicular eruptions, and may be accompanied by secondary infections.
   Ingestion
May cause gastrointestinal irritation with nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. May cause cardiac disturbances. Metabolism may release cyanide, which may result in headache, dizziness, weakness, collapse, unconsciousness and possible death. Ingestion of large amounts may cause CNS depression. Ingestion may result in symptoms similar to cyanide poisoning which is characterized by aspyhxiation.
   Inhalation
May cause respiratory tract irritation. Aspiration may lead to pulmonary edema. Vapors may cause dizziness or suffocation. May cause cardiac abnormalities. Contains cyanide. May be metabolized to cyanide which in turns act by inhibiting cytochrome oxidase impairing cellular respiration. Inhalation may result in symptoms similar to cyanide poisoning which includes unconsciousness and death. Inhalation at high concentrations may cause CNS depression and asphixiation. May cause burning sensation in the chest.
   Skin
May be metabolized to cyanide which in turn acts by inhibiting cytochrome oxidase impairing cellular respiration. May cause irritation and dermatitis. May cause cyanosis of the extremities.
   Eyes
May cause eye irritation. May cause chemical conjunctivitis and corneal damage.

First aid
 
   Ingestion
Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person. Get medical aid. Do NOT induce vomiting. If conscious and alert, rinse mouth and drink 2-4 cupfuls of milk or water.
   Inhalation
Remove from exposure to fresh air immediately. If breathing is difficult, give oxygen. Get medical aid. DO NOT use mouth-to-mouth respiration. If breathing has ceased apply artificial respiration using oxygen and a suitable mechanical device such as a bag and a mask.
   Skin
Get medical aid. Immediately flush skin with plenty of soap and water for at least 15 minutes while removing contaminated clothing and shoes. Wash clothing before reuse.
   Eyes
Immediately flush eyes with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes, occasionally lifting the upper and lower eyelids. Get medical aid.

Transport.
UN number
2929
Response guide
Hazard class
6.1
Packing Group
I; II
 
HS Code
2926 90 95