Colorless crystals or a clear colorless liquid.
Org synthesis, tear gas.
Registry Numbers and Inventories.
Melting point, °C
Boiling point, °C
1.4 g/cm3 (20 C)
Partition coefficient, pKow
Hazards and Protection.
Keep in a cool, dry, dark location in a tightly sealed container or cylinder. Keep away from incompatible materials, ignition sources and untrained individuals. Secure and label area. Protect containers/cylinders from physical damage.
All chemicals should be considered hazardous. Avoid direct physical contact. Use appropriate, approved safety equipment. Untrained individuals should not handle this chemical or its container. Handling should occur in a chemical fume hood.
Wear appropriate protective gloves, clothing and goggles.
Wear positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA).
Keep sparks, flames, and other sources of ignition away. Keep material out of water sources and sewers. Use water spray to knock-down vapors.
Incompatible with strong oxidizing and reducing agents Incompatible with many amines, nitrides, azo/diazo compounds, alkali metals, and epoxides.
Use water in flooding quantities as fog. Use alcohol foam, dry chemical or carbon dioxide. Cool all affected containers with flooding quantities of water. Use water spray to knock-down vapors.
May burn but does not ignite readily.
Containers may explode when heated. Runoff may pollute waterways. Substance may be transported in a molten form.
Fire may produce irritating, corrosive and/or toxic gases.
Agitation and syncope, both attributed to panic, have been reported.
A metallic taste with a burning sensation of the tongue is common. Nausea is common; vomiting occurs occasionally. Epigastric discomfort and burping may occur if tear gas is swallowed.
Cough, rhinorrhea, sneezing, chest tightness, and laryngospasm may occur shortly following exposure due to the irritant effects.
Irritation may occur to all body surfaces where significant exposure has occurred. Painful contact dermatitis may persist for several hours following exposure to mace containing capsaicin. Bullous dermatitis may develop 12 to three days after exposure to tear gas containing o-chlorobenzylidene malononitrile (cs). Erythema, vesicle eruptions, and denuded areas with weeping tender erythematous base may develop one day after exposure to mace containing 1-chloroacetophenone (cn).
Seek medical assistance.
Move patient to fresh air. Monitor for respiratory distress. If cough or difficulty breathing develops, evaluate for respiratory tract irritation, bronchitis, or pneumonitis. Administer oxygen and assist ventilation as required. Treat bronchospasm with beta2 agonist and corticosteroid aerosols.
Remove contaminated clothing and wash exposed area thoroughly with soap and water. A physician should examine the area if irritation or pain persists. Remove all contaminated clothing while avoiding self-contamination. Meticulously wash all exposed areas with copious amounts of soap and water. The patient's clothing may contain residual particles from the exposure and clothing should be removed and stored in a sealed polythene bag to prevent degassing. If clothing is to be washed, cold water should be used because hot wat will cause residual o-chlorobenzylidene malononitrile (cs) gas to vaporize.
Irrigate exposed eyes with copious amounts of tepid water for at least 15 minutes. If irritation, pain, swelling, lacrimation, or photophobia persist, the patient should be seen in a health care facility.
Std. Transport #